VERDI 1.5 User Manual

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Visualization Environment for Rich Data Interpretation (VERDI 1.5): User’s Manual

U.S. EPA Contract No. EP-W-09-023, “Operation of the Center for Community Air Quality Modeling and Analysis (CMAS)”

Prepared for:       William Benjey and Donna Schwede

                              U.S. EPA, ORD/NERL/AMD/APMB


                              USEPA Mailroom

                              Research Triangle Park, NC 27711


Prepared by:       Liz Adams and Jo Ellen Brandmeyer

                              Institute for the Environment

                              The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

                              100 Europa Drive, Suite 490

                              CB 1105

                              Chapel Hill, NC 27599-1105




Date:                     October 26, 2014



1      Introduction

1.1      Background

This manual describes how to use the Visualization Environment for Rich Data Interpretation (VERDI). VERDI is a flexible and modular Java-based visualization software tool that allows users to visualize multivariate gridded environmental datasets created by environmental modeling systems such as the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system and the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) modeling system. These systems produce files of gridded concentration and deposition fields that users need to visualize and compare with observational data both spatially and temporally. VERDI can facilitate these types of analyses.

Initial development of VERDI was done by the Argonne National Laboratory for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and its user community. Argonne National Laboratory's work was supported by the EPA through U.S. Department of Energy contract DE-AC02-06CH11357.  Further development has been performed by the University of North Carolina Institute for the Environment under U.S. EPA Contract No. EP-W-05-045 and EP-W-09-023, by Lockheed Corporation under U.S. EPA contract No. 68-W-04-005, and Argonne National Laboratory.  VERDI is licensed under the GNU General Public License (GPL) version 3, and the source code is available through  Instructions for developers within the community are included in the VERDI Developer Instructions (see Section 1.3). VERDI is supported by the Community Modeling and Analysis System (CMAS) Center under U.S. EPA Contract No. EP-W-09-023. The batch script and VERDI Script Editor were developed and documented under U.S. EPA Contract No. EP-D-07-102, through an Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards project managed by Kirk Baker. The CMAS Center is located within the Institute for the Environment at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

This guide describes VERDI version 1.5 released in October 2014.

The following are useful web links for obtaining VERDI downloads and support:

1.      VERDI Visualization Tool web site:

CMAS download page for users of VERDI (requires a CMAS account):

2.      CMAS website for developers of VERDI:

3.      VERDI Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs):

Use pulldown menu to select VERDI product to view its FAQs.

4.      To query M3USER listserv for VERDI related technical support questions and answers:

5.      To query bugs and submit bug reports, questions, and/or requests: you do not already have a login and password, click the “Home” link for instructions on how to obtain them.)

1.2       Where to Obtain VERDI

You can download the latest version of VERDI from (see Figure 1‑1). When you click on DOWNLOAD to download VERDI, you will be sent to the CMAS Model Download Center.  To download and install VERDI, follow the instructions below, beginning at step 4.  Alternatively, you may also begin at the CMAS web site, and follow the instructions below:

1.      Log in using an existing CMAS account, or create a new CMAS account.

2.      Hover the cursor over the Download Center link on the left-hand side of the web site and choose SOFTWARE from the menu that appears.

3.       Select a model family to download, as shown in Figure 1‑2. Use the pull-down list to select VERDI, and then click Submit.

4.      Select the product you wish to download, as shown in Figure 1‑3. Also specify the type of computer you are planning to run VERDI on (such as Linux PC, Windows, or Other) from the items in the scroll list. Note that the compilers question is not relevant for VERDI so it can be skipped. Finally, click Submit.

5.      As shown in Figure 1‑4 follow the links to the appropriate version of the Linux, Mac, or Windows installation files. Links are also available for the current version of the documentation and the shape2bin utility.

Figure 1‑1. Top of VERDI Page


Figure 1‑2. Downloading VERDI from the CMAS Web Site, Step 1


Figure 1‑3. Downloading VERDI from the CMAS Web Site, Step 2


Figure 1‑4. Downloading VERDI from the CMAS Web Site, Step 3


1.3      Where to Obtain VERDI Documentation

Documentation is available in several locations, described below. Each location provides links to the available documentation for VERDI, which can be viewed in your web browser or downloaded and saved to your computer.    

·         The VERDI download page on the CMAS website (see step 4 in Section 1.2) contains links to all of the available documentation.

·         On the left-hand side of the web site, you can hover the cursor over the Help Desk link and choose DOCUMENTATION from the menu that appears. Select the documentation for VERDI from the drop-down list (Figure 1‑5) and click Submit. Select the model release from the drop-down list and click Search. The resulting documentation pane shows that the available documentation for the chosen release of VERDI.

·         To go directly to the VERDI 1.5 documentation click on Documentation from the VERDI software: Figure 1-6 shows the list of documentation that is available for download for VERDI 1.5.


Figure 1‑5. Getting Documentation on VERDI from the CMAS Web Site


Figure 1‑6. VERDI Documentation on the CMAS Web Site


1.4      Help Desk Support for VERDI

You are encouraged to check the VERDI FAQs, search the M3USER listserv for VERDI-related technical support questions, and report errors and/or requests for enhancement to the m3user forum.  The m3user forum is supported by the community and also by CMAS to help users resolve issues and identify and fix bugs found in supported software products.

1.5      Future VERDI Development

As stated in Schwede et al. (2007),[#_ftn1 [1]] “VERDI is intended to be a community-based visualization tool with strong user involvement.” The VERDI source code is available to the public under a GPL license at  This allows users who wish to make improvements to VERDI to download the software, and to develop enhancements and improvements that they believe may be useful to the modeling community. Examples could include user-developed readers for additional file formats and modules for additional plot types. Users may wish to contribute data analysis routines, such as adding the ability to do bilinear interpolation (smoothing), or to contribute other enhancements to the existing plot types. The direction of future development will depend on the resources and the needs of the modeling community.  If you are interested in contributing code to VERDI, please review the information in Chapter 14, “Contributing to VERDI Development.”

2.1      Java Runtime Environment

Requirements for Using VERDI

VERDI requires version 7 of the Java Standard Edition Runtime Environment (JRE). The JRETM 7 is provided as part of the VERDI release for 32- and 64-bit Linux and Windows. Instructions for how to download JRETM 7 are provided in section 3.3. 

2.2      Memory and CPU Requirements

VERDI’s memory and CPU requirements largely depend on the size of the datasets to be visualized. Small datasets can be visualized and manipulated using less than 1024 megabytes of RAM, while larger datasets may need considerably more. If you are using datasets that require either more or less than 1024 MB of memory, you can change the default maximum memory setting used by VERDI:

·         On Windows, edit the Verdi.ini file to specify a different heap size from the default 1024M. 

·         On Linux or another Unix platform, you can edit and replace the 1024 in –Xmx1024M with a different value; for example, -Xmx2048M will allow VERDI to access up to 2048MB (or 2GB) of RAM.

Note that even slower CPUs can quickly view and animate smaller datasets, whereas larger datasets can take longer. Initially, VERDI’s performance was slow when it was used across the network via ssh. This problem was addressed in version 1.1 with the addition of the Fast Tile Plot. Beginning with version VERDI 1.4, memory was more effectively managed. As a user opens new Fast Tile plots or other plot types, the memory requirements increase. As the user then closes the plots, the memory is correctly released by VERDI.

2.3      Requirements to Run VERDI Remotely

VERDI may be used to run on a remote compute server and have the graphics display locally on your desktop machine (Unix workstation, Mac, or PC) using the Fast Tile Plot.  Your computer needs to be configured to run X-Windows. Typically, you will connect to the remote compute server using secure shell (SSH).  If you are using an X-Server and wish to generate 3-D plots using Open GL, you need to turn on Open GL support within the X-Server.

2.4      Graphics Requirements

Three-dimensional contour plots require a graphics card with OpenGL or DirectX capability.  By default VERDI uses OpenGL for 3D rendering. If you would like to use DirectX instead, add the line: j3d=-Dj3d.rend=d3d to the verdi.ini file. 

2.5      Display Properties

VERDI works best on screen displays that have been set to a high or perhaps the highest screen resolution (1280 ´ 1024 pixels for Windows XP, 1440 ´ 900 for Mac, or 1680 ´ 1050 for Windows 7).  Follow these general instructions to adjust your screen resolution on the following types of computers.

·         Windows XP: Right-click on your desktop, click on the Settings tab in the popup window, and move the slider under the screen resolution section to set the resolution to 1280 ´ 1024 pixels.

·         Windows 7: Click on the Start button and select Control Panel. Select Display, then Adjust resolution. Use the drop-down boxes to select your type of display, screen resolution, etc.

·         Mac: Go to Applications and double-click on System Preferences. Under Hardware select Displays and then Select 1440 ´ 900.

3      VERDI Installation Instructions

This chapter provides instructions for installing VERDI 1.5 on a variety of computer platforms. The supporting libraries required by VERDI are included in the installation, along with a version of the JRE 7 for your convenience. If you already have JRE 7 installed on your computer, you will not need to uninstall it and you can choose to use that one.

VERDI 1.5 is distributed as a zip or gzip file, as appropriate, for each of the following supported platforms:

·         32-bit Windows 7

·         64-bit Windows 7

·         32-bit Linux

·         64-bit Linux

·         Mac

If you have a different computer system, select the distribution for a computer system as close to yours as possible and proceed with the installation. Although Java is considered a write-once, run-anywhere computer language, that is not necessarily true for graphical software. Therefore, an appropriate version of some graphics libraries is included in each of the above VERDI distributions.

3.1      Installation Instructions for Linux and Mac

Follow these instructions to install VERDI:

1.      tar -xvf verdi_1.5.tar into a location where you would like to install VERDI

2.      Edit verdi_1.5/ Change the path for the VERDI_HOME variable to reflect the location where VERDI was installed (e.g., VERDI_HOME=/usr/local/verdi)

3.      VERDI should now run if you execute the executable script (e.g., ./

3.2      Installation Instructions for Windows

To install VERDI for Windows, unzip the file to a local directory on your Windows 7 computer. NOTE: You do not need to install VERDI under a Program Files directory or in the root directory on one of your hard disk drives. Therefore, you should not need Administrator rights to install VERDI 1.5. If your system is under strict control from your Administrator, you may be able to unzip the VERDI distribution under your documents directory; however, you may have problems with a space in your PATH.

If you are unable to install VERDI on your computer, please check to see whether your user account is authorized to install software. You may need to request that a user with a computer administrator account install VERDI, or provide you with an account that has permission to install software.  For more information about user account types, click Start and select Control Panel and then click on the User Account icon.

3.3      Installation Instructions for computer that that requires a JRETM 7 other than what was provided in the distribution:

1.      Download Java 7 for your platform from

2.      Follow the installation instructions.

3.4      Setting VERDI Preferences

The VERDI installation package contains a file called On Windows, this file is copied into the VERDI subdirectory of your USERPROFILE directory (e.g., “C:\ Users\yourusername\verdi”) and renamed to  On Linux, this file is copied into the ~username/verdi/ subdirectory and renamed to  Users are encouraged to edit this file to specify default directories for saving files, for placing the location of configuration files, and for saving project files.  Contents of

# This file should be put in $USER_HOME/verdi/ subdirectory

# Please use double backslash for Windows platform or slash for UNIX-like platforms

# Please uncomment the following lines and modify them to suit your local settings


# Windows example settings format

# verdi.project.home=C:\\ Users\\yourusername\\VERDI_1.5\\project

# verdi.config.home=C:\\ Users\\yourusername\\VERDI_1.5\\config


# Linux example settings format







# WDT default area file folder



# For VERDI to access remote big netCDF data files,,,




#on local machine where VERDI is running. Used to hold temporary data file downloaded from a remote machine


The items in the file that is installed with VERDI are commented out. Uncommented them by removing the starting ‘#’ sign if you do not want to specify the directories each time a file is loaded or saved. Example settings that are provided in the default file show how to specify the paths to these locations, depending on whether the installation is for a Windows or Linux platform.  Here are how the settings are used by VERDI. Note that VERDI stores the most recently used directory for each of these functions and will go to that directory when you repeat the load or save.

·         verdi.project.home: Default location from which to load and save projects

·         verdi.config.home: Default location from which to load and save plot configuration files

·         verdi.dataset.home: Default location from which to load datasets

·         verdi.script.home: Default location from which to load and save batch scripts 

·         verdi.hucData: Default location where area shapefiles are located; VERDI navigates to this directory when the user selects to add a dataset in the Area pane.

·         verdi.remote.hosts: Contains a list of machines that the user can select to browse when adding a remote dataset using VERDI’s Remote File Access capability

·         verdi.remote.util: Location of the RemoteFileUtility script for Linux and Mac installations of VERDI.

Starting in VERDI version 1.4, the file was removed and the user-configurable settings, such as the default directory locations, were moved to the file.

4      Starting VERDI and Getting Your Data into VERDI

4.1      Starting VERDI

4.1.1     Windows

To start VERDI, open a command window. If you do not have a shortcut to launch a command window, press the Start button and type cmd in the Search programs and files textbox. If your window is too small, go to the window’s title bar and right-click; select Properties and then Layout and change your Screen Buffer Size and your Window Size appropriately.

Next, navigate to where you installed VERDI on your computer. You see the run.bat file. Its contents are shown in Figure 4‑1. If you have previously executed this VERDI installation, just type run and press the Enter key. Otherwise, you may need to customize some of the settings in this file for your configuration. If so, edit your run.bat in a text editor such as Notepad.

Figure 4‑1. Starting VERDI in Windows


VERDI_HOME needs to point to the directory where VERDI is installed, which is also the directory containing the run.bat file. In this figure VERDI is installed in the directory C:\myPrograms\VERDI_1.5.0.


JAVA_DIR needs to point to the directory where your JRE7 is installed. In this figure JRE7 is installed in the jre1.7.0 directory under the VERDI_HOME directory. If you are using a JRE in a different location on your computer, change the path in your run.bat file.


All other locations are specified relative to the VERDI_HOME or the JAVA_DIR, so you should not need to change any of those.

4.1.2     Linux and Other Non-Windows JRETM 7 Supported System Configurations

To start VERDI from Linux and other non-Windows JRETM 7 Supported System Configurations, find the directory where VERDI was installed, then run the script. On a Mac go to the /Applications/verdi_1.5 directory and run the verdi.command script.

4.2      Main Window

When VERDI starts it displays its title screen as it loads. The main window is then displayed (Figure 4‑2). The top of the main window contains a menu bar with the main window options (File, Plots, Window, and Help). Below the menu bar are three icons that are shortcuts to some of the options available in the Main Window Menu Bar; the first is an Open Project icon, the second is a Save Project icon, the third is an icon that allows you to Undock All Plots. These shortcuts and the options available in the Main Window Menu Bar are discussed further in Chapter 5, “Navigating VERDI’s Main Menu Options.”

To the right of these three shortcut icons are buttons that list all of the available plot types. The Selected Formula is displayed on the far right.  The Selected Formula refers to the formula that has been selected in the Formula pane (discussed briefly below and in detail in Chapter 7) and that will be used to create plots.

Below the icons and plot buttons, the VERDI window is divided into two main areas: a parameters area consisting of tabbed panes on the left side and a plots area on the right side. You can resize the entire window with your mouse. You can also resize the tabbed pane separately from the plot area by placing your mouse over the dividing line between them and then moving it to the left or the right. If you want, you can separate the tabbed pane into 3 panes by using your mouse to hold onto the pane’s title bar and then move it slightly out of alignment. To reassemble the 3 panes into a tabbed pane, use your mouse to hold onto the title bar of one pane, drag it until its outline fills the outline of another pane, and then release the mouse.

Figure 4‑2. VERDI Main Window


The parameters area contains three tabbed panes:

·         The Datasets pane is used to load in the dataset files that you want to work with in this session (see Chapter 6). Once the datasets are loaded, VERDI automatically displays the lists of variables that are in the datasets. To see the variables in a dataset, click on the dataset, and the variables will be displayed in the Variables panel underneath the list of datasets. Double-click on the name of a variable listed on the variables panel to add it as a formula on the Formula pane; it will be the default formula for new plots that are created.

·         The Formula pane is used to create a formula that refers to the variable and the dataset that you are interested in plotting (see Chapter 7). All plots in VERDI are generated from formulas. A formula can be as simple as a single variable from one dataset or it can be an equation that uses variables from one or more datasets.

·         Use the Areas pane to load area files for creating areal interpolation plots (see Chapter 8).  An area file is defined as a shapefile that contains polygon features such as watersheds, counties, or any other set of closed polygons.

Any plots that are created are shown in the plots area on the right-hand side of the main window. These plots can be placed into their own movable windows using Plots>Undock all Plots on VERDI’s main menu, as discussed in Section 5.2.1. The Fast Tile Plot was added in VERDI version 1.1.  As of VERDI 1.4, the Tile Plot was removed because its functionality had been replaced by the Fast Tile Plot. The Fast Tile Plot has an option (Plot>Add Overlay> Vectors) to create a Fast Tile Plot of a variable with a vector overlay of wind vectors or other vector types.  The Vector Plot has now been removed because the Fast Tile Plot with vector overlay is superior.  The functions that are currently enabled for Fast Tile Plots are described in Section 10.1.

4.3      Floating the Dataset, Formula, and Area Panes

The Datasets, Formulas, and Areas panes can each be configured to float, to allow you to position them alongside one another. To allow a pane to float, click the icon at the top of the pane that looks like a rectangle with an angle bracket above the upper right corner. You can then click on the pane and move it independently of the VERDI main window. This is useful when you are entering a formula in the Formula pane, if you have difficulty remembering the variables that are in a loaded dataset.  Once a pane is disconnected from the frame, the icon changes to be a box with an arrow pointing inward, with the hover over text tip: “Connects this panel to the frame”.  Click on the box with the inward arrow to reconnect the panel with the frame.  This will return the floating pane back to where it was last connected within the main VERDI window.

5      Navigating VERDI’s Main Menu Options

Figure 5‑1 illustrates the main menu options that are available on the top menu bar in VERDI’s main window (Figure 4‑2, above). These options are discussed in detail below.

Figure 5‑1. VERDI Main Menu Options

Open Project
Save Project
Save Project As
View Script Editor
Undock All Plots
Animate Tile Plots
VERDI Help Docs

5.1      File Menu Options

5.1.1     Open Project

Open Project retrieves projects that were saved during a previous session (using the two Save Project options described next). Note that when you use a saved project, it is very important to load that project into VERDI before you load any additional datasets or create any additional variables/formulas. If you load a dataset that is not part of the previously saved project and then try to open a previously saved project, you will get a message that says “All currently loaded datasets will be unloaded”, and will be asked if you want to continue.

5.1.2     Save Project

The Save Project and Save Project As options save dataset lists and associated formulas as a “project” for later use.

Note that plots are not saved with a project; only datasets and formulas are saved.  If you wish to save a plot configuration for later use, see Section 11.2.2, “Loading and Saving Configuration.”

5.1.3     View Script Editor

Use the View Script Editor to modify and run batch scripts within VERDI.  Several sample script files are provided with the VERDI distribution under the $VERDI_HOME/data/scripts directory.  Use the Open popup window to specify eps.txt, which is one of the sample script files.  The contents of the eps.txt will be displayed in the Script Editor in the right side of the VERDI window.  Modify it to specify the local directory path name for the sample data files, the formulas, the type of plots, and the image format.  The plots are not rendered within VERDI, but may be viewed using an image viewer.  The batch scripting language is described in the sample script files, and will be described in more detail in Chapter 17: VERDI Batch Script Editor.

5.2      Plots Menu Options

VERDI opens a single pane for plots, to the right of the Dataset, Formula, and Area tabbed pane. Each plot is created in its own subwindow and is placed in the plot pane. The most recent plot is display on the top. Each plot has a tab beneath it listing the type of plot and the formula used to create it. If you want to view a previously created plot, select the tab associated with its subwindow underneath the current plot; the selected plot is then displayed on top.

5.2.1     Undock All Plots

As with the Dataset, Formula, and Area panes (Section 4.3), plot subwindows can be undocked or externalized so that you can move them into separate, floating windows. This allows side-by-side comparisons of plots. Note that undocking is performed only on previously created plots; each plot is placed within the VERDI main window when it is generated.

5.2.2      Animate Tile Plots

This option opens an Animate Plots dialog box (Figure 5‑2) that allows you to select one or more plots, select a subset of the time range, and create an animated GIF file. There is also a separate way to create a QuickTime movie instead of a GIF, if desired.

Within the Animate Plots dialog box, you can select plot(s) to animate by clicking the check box beside each plot name.

You can choose to animate a single plot, or animate multiple plots synchronously. To view multiple animated plots synchronously, undock the plots (see Section 5.2.1) and arrange them so that they are located side by side for visual comparison during the animation.

Once a plot has been selected, you can select the time range by specifying both the starting time step and ending time step of the animation.

To create an animated GIF, check the Make Animated GIF(s) option in the Animate Plots dialog box. In the Save dialog box that appears, select the directory in which to store the file and the name to use for the animated GIF, then click the save button. When saving as an animated GIF, when multiple plots are selected, each animated plot will be saved to a separate animated GIF file.  For example, if three plots were selected, the animated plots would be saved as <filename>-1.gif, <filename>-2.gif, <filename>-3.gif. You can view the animated GIF by opening the file in a web browser. 

Creating a QuickTime movie is also an option, but this is not done through the Plots>Animate Tile Plots main menu option.  Instead, use the Plot menu option found at the top of each individual plot to make a QuickTime movie.

Figure 5‑2. Animate Plots Dialog and Fast Tile Plots


5.3      Window Menu Options

The Window menu provides an alternate way to select windows/panes to be brought to the front, and provides the same function as clicking on the tabs at the bottom of the windows/panes.

5.3.1     Datasets, Areas, and Formulas

Select from the Window pull-down menu to bring to the front either the Datasets pane, Areas pane, or Formulas pane when those panes are docked.

5.3.2     Script Editor

This option appears in the Window menu if you have a script editor window open. You can select this menu item instead of pressing the Script Editor tab at the bottom of its pane.

5.3.3     List of Plots

The Window pull-down menu is automatically updated each time a plot is created in a VERDI session; each entry in the plot list indicates the type of plot and the formula used (e.g, Tile O3[1]). Click on a plot entry to bring that plot to the front for viewing. Alternatively, you can bring a plot to the front by selecting the desired plot tab underneath the plots area of the main window. As in the menu entries, each plot tab is labeled with the plot type and the formula used.

5.4      Help Menu Options

The Help pull-down menu contains two items that you can use to learn more about VERDI. When you select VERDI Help Docs, the VERDI user’s manual is displayed in a VERDI Help window. This window is not searchable, but it does allow you to navigate via hyperlinks in the Table of Contents, and to scroll down and read the user’s manual. When you select About a popup window that contains the name of the product, the version number, and the date the software was built is displayed.

6      Working with Gridded Datasets

6.1      Gridded Input File Formats

6.1.1      Model Formats

VERDI currently supports visualizing files in the following file format conventions: CMAQ Input/Output Applications Programming Interface (I/O API) netCDF, WRF netCDF, and CAMx (UAM-IV), and ASCII format (for observational data). VERDI uses version 4.3.22 of the thredds/NetCDF-java I/O library (

The CMAQ I/O API was designed as a high-level interface on top of the netCDF Java library. (see for further information).  The I/O API library provides a comprehensive programming interface to files for the air quality model developer and model-related tool developer, in both FORTRAN and C/C++.  I/O API files are self-describing and include projection information within the gridded dataset.  See Chapter 12 for additional information on what projections and gridded data file format conventions are currently supported by VERDI.

NetCDF and I/O API files are portable across computing platforms. This means that these files can be read regardless of what computer type or operating system you are using. There are routines available to convert data to these formats or new code can be written and contributed to VERDI for use by the community.  Discussion of the I/O API conversion programs and how to use them can be found in Chapter 13, “I/O API Utilities, Data Conversion Programs, and Libraries”.  If you write a routine for VERDI to read gridded data from other formats, please consider contributing your code to the user community using, as described in Chapter 14.

6.1.2      Observational Data Formats

Observational data in ASCII format can be obtained from EPA’s Remote Sensing Information Gateway - RSIG (  To use a consistent set of units for the model data and the observational data, you may need to import the ASCII data into an Excel spreadsheet and perform a unit conversion.  VERDI doesn’t allow the user to use an observational variable to create a formula, so conversions to different units should be done within an Excel spreadsheet.  Import the ASCII file that is generated by RSIG into Excel, change the units to match the units found in the gridded model data file and then save using a tab delimited ASCII file format.

The observational data ASCII format recognized by VERDI is an ASCII file with tab-separated columns where the first four columns are provided in the order shown in  and one or more additional columns are arbitrary but must have the header format 'name(units)' as shown in Figure 6‑1.  Spreadsheet programs can be used to edit and write the files by choosing ASCII output and tab as the delimiting character (instead of comma). Data within a column must be complete, as empty fields within a column will prevent VERDI from reading the observational data. VERDI allows the user to specify an alphanumeric value (either numbers and/or letters) for the fourth column (Station ID).

Figure 6‑1. Observational File ASCII Format


Alternatively, users may use a converter such as AIRS2M3 (see Chapter 13) to convert ASCII observational data into I/O API "observational-data" files.

6.2      Example Datasets

Several example datasets are provided under the $VERDI_HOME/data directory. For example:

·         Windows: %VERDI_HOME%\\VERDI 1.5\\data

·         Mac: $VERDI_HOME/verdi_1.5/data/

·         Linux: $VERDI_HOME/verdi_1.5/data

These datasets may be used to recreate example plots that are provided in this user guide, including a tile plot with observational data overlay in Section, and the example datasets for the various dataset projections that VERDI supports including LCC, polar stereographic, UTM and Mercator.  The data directory currently contains four subdirectories:

1.      CAMx – contains sample CAMx dataset and camxproj.txt file

2.      hucRegion – contains Hydrologic Unit Code (HUC) shapefiles for region 3 (southeast US)

3.      Model – contains sample WRF and CMAQ I/O API datasets

4.      Obs – contains an ASCII formatted observational dataset (Chapter 6-1), and an observational dataset created by airs2m3 converter (Chapter 13).

6.3      Adding and Removing a Dataset from a Local File System

To load a data set from a local file system, press the yellow plus button at the top of the Datasets pane. A file browser (Figure 6‑2) allows you to select a dataset for use in VERDI.  Support for loading data from a remote file system has been added beginning in version 1.4.  The use of the yellow plus remote button will be discussed in Section 6.4.

After you select a dataset, VERDI will load header information and display the available variables, time steps, layers, and domain used by the file in the Datasets pane (Figure 6‑3). (The actual model data are not loaded until later, when plots are created.) To view the variables for a particular dataset that has been loaded, click on the dataset name in the list to highlight it, and the variables will be listed in the panel below.

Datasets can be removed by highlighting the name of the dataset in the dataset list and pressing the yellow minus button. Note that although the dataset will be removed, the number that was assigned to that dataset will not be reused by VERDI during the current session (unless there had been only one dataset loaded, and it was removed; in that case the next dataset that is loaded will be labeled number 1).

Figure 6‑2. Open Dataset File Browser



Figure 6‑3. Datasets Pane Displaying Information about a Dataset


6.4      Adding and Removing a Dataset from a Remote File System

VERDI provides users with the ability to select and add variables from datasets on remote file systems. To do this, press the yellow plus remote (plus with a diagonal arrow) button at the top of the Datasets pane.  In the Remote File Access Browser (Figure 6‑4) that appears, enter your user name, choose a host from the list, and enter your password, then click Connect.

Figure 6‑4. Available Hosts in the Remote File Access Browser


6.4.1     Remote File Browser

The top panel displays a listing of the home directory on the remote file system, as shown in Figure 6‑5.  The current path is displayed in the text box and users can edit this information to change to another directory. An alternate way to navigate between directories is using the middle panel. In the middle panel, double click on a directory name to go into that directory, or click on the “../” at the top of the middle panel to navigate up a directory.  As you enter a directory, the contents of the directory will be displayed as a list in the middle panel.  Directory names are followed by a “/” symbol, while filenames do not have a “/” symbol after them.  View the variables within each file of interest by double clicking on the netCDF filename listed in the middle panel.  NOTE: if the selected file has a format that is not supported by VERDI then the following message will be displayed in the bottom panel: “Not a valid NetCDF file”. For supported netCDF files, VERDI will provide a list of variables that are available within the file in the bottom panel labeled “Select one or more variables”.  To select variables from the list, use your mouse to click on a single variable, or use either the Shift key with the mouse to select a contiguous list of variables, or the Control key with the mouse to select a set of individual variables.  Once the variables that you would like VERDI to read are highlighted, click on the Read button.

Figure 6‑5. Select One or More Variables from Remote Dataset


The variables read from the remote dataset will be displayed in the dataset and variable browser in the same way that variables from a local dataset are added and displayed within VERDI.  The subsetted local dataset names are identical to the file names on the remote host, except for an additional extension that enumerates how many times the remote files were read and saved locally by VERDI (i.e., filename1, filename2, filename3, etc.), as shown in Figure 6‑6.  To add variables from the same remote dataset, click on the plus remote button, and repeat the above procedure. 

The Remote File Browser retains the login session and the directory that was last accessed by the user to facilitate ease of accessing remote datasets. VERDI increments the numerical extension to the dataset name to indicate that this subset file was created using the same remote dataset, but that the subset file with the new numerical extension may contain a different subset of variables.  Note that VERDI does not check to see if the same variable from the same remote dataset has already been read.  Also, subset files read in by VERDI are saved either to your home directory on your local file system (e.g., C:\Users\username on a Windows 7 computer), or to the location that is specified in the file using the verdi.temporary.dir setting. Refer to Section 6.4.2 on how to edit and save the file. 

The files are saved on your local machine to facilitate project management.  To be able to save and then load a project for future use, the files need to be saved on the local machine. To avoid filling up your local file system, regularly inspect the file list in the home or verdi.temporary.dir directory and manually delete unneeded subset files. 

Remote datasets can be removed from the dataset list in VERDI using the same procedure as for removing local datasets: highlight the name of the dataset in the dataset list and press the yellow minus button. Note that although the dataset will be removed from the dataset list, the number that was assigned to that dataset will not be reused by VERDI during the current session.

Figure 6‑6. Remote Dataset Labeled with Number at End of the Filename



6.4.2     Adding Additional Remote Hosts

VERDI contains the RemoteFileUtility and ncvariable programs that enable VERDI to add your I/O API netCDF or WRF netCDF formatted dataset from a remote file system.  A gzipped tar file is available in the $VERDI_HOME directory.

1.      The RemoteFileUtility c-shell script and ncvariable binary need to be installed either in /usr/local/bin by the System Administrator, or you can place it in a different location and specify that location in the file located in your $USER_HOME/verdi/ directory (see section 3.4 for the specific directory location that is used for each platform [Linux, Windows, Mac]).  A template for the file called is provided in the distribution under the $VERDI_HOME directory.

2.      A README file provided with the software contains instructions on how to compile the source code if the binaries provided do not match your operating system.

3.      Copy the file to Edit the file in the $USER_HOME/verdi directory.  Add the name or IP address of the Linux server, preceded by a comma, at the end of the list of machines defined as remote hosts in the file, as shown in Figure 6‑7.  You then need to restart VERDI in order for it to recognize a newly added remote host name.

Figure 6‑7. Edit File to Add a Remote Host


6.5      Variables List

The variables list shows all of the variables contained in a loaded dataset (see the example in Figure 6‑7). To display a variables list, select the name of the dataset of interest in the Datasets pane. Each of the variables in the list can be used to create a formula in the Formula pane that can then be used to create plots.  VERDI allows the user to automatically add a formula by double-clicking on the name of a variable.  This automatically creates a formula that contains the variable for the loaded dataset and makes it the default formula for making plots. In addition, you may right-click on the name of the variable to show a popup menu as shown in Figure 6‑8.  From this menu you can either add the variable as a formula, or you can to add it into the formula editor so that it can be used to compose more complex formulas. Formulas are described in more detail in Chapter 7.

Figure 6‑8. Right-Click on Variable in Dataset Pane


6.6      Time Steps, Layers Panels

The range that is available for the dataset is listed in the Time Steps or Layers Panel in parenthesis next to the label for the panel. Figure 6‑8 shows that the dataset has 25 time steps with the range displayed as: Time Steps (1-25). You can select to use a subset of the full time step range by clicking on the Use Time Range checkbox, and then using the Min and Max spinner controls to set a new minimum or maximum values, for example choosing time step 2 as the minimum time step, and time step 4 as the maximum.  When a tile plot is created, it will only display time steps 2-4. Detailed instructions for using the Time Steps, Layers, and Domain panels that you see in Figure 6‑8 are discussed in Chapter 9, “Spatial and Temporal Data Subsetting.”

6.7      Domain Panel

The domain panel contains an Edit button and a Metadata button. Detailed instructions for using the Edit button are provided in Chapter 9, “Spatial and Temporal Data Subsetting”.

To display the metadata information about a dataset, click on the Metadata button in the Domain panel. A window containing the metadata will appear (Figure 6‑9).  Each dataset includes metadata information that is part of the file header. The metadata provided include the map projection information, the number of time steps in the file, the number of columns and rows, and other information.

Figure 6‑9. Dataset Metadata Information


6.8      Saving Projects

As noted in Section 5.1.2, lists of datasets and formulas can be saved as “projects” using the Save Project option in the File pull-down menu on the VERDI main window. Refer back to that section for discussion on saving new projects and loading existing projects. Note again that the plots created in VERDI are not saved with the project.

7      Working with Formulas

All plots in VERDI are generated from formulas. A formula is used to compare or manipulate variables in one or more gridded datasets. A formula can be as simple as a single variable from one gridded dataset or it can be an equation that uses variable(s) from one or more gridded datasets. Formulas are used to create visualizations that can assist with model performance evaluations, for example, or that help in comparing model results with observations.

7.1      Adding and Removing a Formula

After loading the desired gridded datasets, you can use the variables in them to create formulas.  To use a variable to create a simple formula, double click on the name of the variable.  This will add the formula <Variable Name>[<Dataset Number>] to the formula list in the Formulas pane—for example, O3[1]. To add a variable to the formula editor window, highlight the variable, right click on the variable name in the Datasets pane, and select Add Variable(s) to Formula Editor. To add all or a subset of variables from the Dataset pane to the formula editor window, click on the first variable to highlight it, hold the Shift key down and click at the last variable that you want to include, then right click and select Add Variables(s). The formulas that are highlighted using this method will be added to the formula editor (Figure 7‑1).

Figure 7‑1. Adding Multiple Variables to Formula Editor


After the variable names are added to the Formula Editor, click on the formula pane and use the cursor and the keyboard to type in the mathematical functions and operators where needed to create a valid formula (see Section 7.2 and Chapter 16).  After the formula has been created in the Formula Editor, click the Add button, to place it in the list of formulas available in the Formula pane. 

To remove a formula from the formulas list, highlight the name in the list and press the yellow minus button.  Note that removing a formula from the formula list does not remove plots that were created prior to the deletion of the formula.

7.2      Example Formulas

To examine the values of ozone in dataset 1, the formula would be “O3[1]”.

To examine the difference in ozone between datasets 1 and 2, the formula would be “O3[1]-O3[2]”.

To calculate the percent difference in ozone between datasets 1 and 2, the formula would be “(O3[1]-O3[2])*100/(O3[2])”.To identify all cells where the ozone concentration exceeds a certain value, you can use the Boolean operators to “screen out” ranges of your data that are of particular interest. A Boolean expression will evaluate to either True = 1 or False = 0. For example, to plot the cells in which the ozone values in dataset 1 exceed 0.080 ppm, you could use the formula “(O3[1]>0.080)*O3[1]”. In the resulting plot, each cell where O3[1] exceeds 0.080 will show the value of O3[1] for that cell; for all other cells the value shown will be zero.

The notations that can be used in formulas to represent various mathematical functions, and the order of precedence of these functions, are listed in Chapter 16, “Mathematical Functions.”

7.3      Selecting a Formula for Plotting

Before creating a plot, a formula must be selected. Check to see which formula is highlighted in the Formula pane, or look to the right of the plot buttons above the plots area of the main window to see the selected formula. By default, VERDI designates the most recently added formula as the selected formula. To change the selected formula to a different one in the list, click on a formula in the list on the Formula pane, and you will then see it displayed as the selected formula above the plots area.

7.4      Saving Formulas

Both formulas and datasets can be saved using the Save Project item in the File pull-down menu on the VERDI main window. Saving new projects and loading existing projects were discussed in Section 5.1.

7.5      Time Step Range, Layer Range, and Edit Domain

Instructions for using the Time Steps, Layers, and Domain panels that you see in Figure 7‑1. Adding Multiple Variables to Formula Editor are discussed in the next section, “Spatial and Temporal Data Subsetting.”

8      Working with Area Files

8.1      Area File Formats

Area files are defined in VERDI as shapefiles that contain area features such as watersheds and counties, or any other shapefile that consists of a set of closed polygons.

The shapefile format (ESRI, 1998) consists of four files.

1.      The *.shp file contains the actual shape vertices.

2.      The *.shx file contains the index data pointing to the structures in the .shp file.

3.      The *.dbf file contains the attributes (e.g., gridded concentrations).

4.      The *.prj file contains the map projection information used for the gridded concentrations.

8.2      Example Area File

Shapefiles that contain closed polygons are used by VERDI to interpolate gridded data to geographic boundary regions to create Areal Interpolation Plots.  Shapefiles containing state, county, or census block, for example, or any other shapefile containing polygon areas may be used in VERDI to calculate and map formulas to the user-selected geographic regions. An example shapefile containing the 8-digit HUC watershed boundary map for the Southeast (HUC 3) is provided in the VERDI release under the $VERDI_HOME/data/HucRegion directory.

Example on-line data archives for these shapefiles include:

8.3      Adding and Removing an Area File

To load a shapefile, press the yellow plus button at the top left corner of the Areas pane (Figure 8‑1). A file browser (Figure 8‑2) allows you to change directories and select a shapefile file for use in VERDI.  Click on the shapefile name and click Next.  The Open Area popup window is displayed next, allowing you to select the name of the field to read from the file and supply projection information if needed.  Use the pull-down menu and click on the Name Field (Figure 8‑3) to be used.  If a *.prj file is not provided with the dataset, you must specify the projection information.  A pull-down menu prompts you to select the coordinate system used in the file – either the Geographic (lat/lon) coordinate system or a Projected (x/y) coordinate system (Figure 8‑4).  If you select Projected, an additional pull-down menu asks what type of projection; enter the required information to perform the project in the text box (Figure 8‑5, Figure 8‑6).  After specifying the Name Field and the Coordinate System, select Finish.  The resulting plot will be in the same projection as the gridded information used in the plot.

8.4      Areas List

The shapefile name(s) are listed in the top panel of the Areas pane, and the name fields for the polygons provided in the shapefile(s) are listed in the panel underneath (Figure 8‑7). The actual model data are not loaded until the Areal Interpolation plots are created.  As additional shapefiles are added, the name fields associated with each shapefile are appended to the bottom of the Areas list.  Use the scrollbar on the right side of the Areas pane to view the additional name fields that are available.  To remove a shapefile, click on the name of the shapefile and press the yellow minus button at the top left corner of the Areas pane. 

8.5      Areal Interpolation

When you select the Areal Interpolation Plot, your selected formula is remapped over the polygon areas that are listed in the Areas pane.  To select a subset of the polygon areas, and view the average and total values for selected formulas, see Section 10.2: Areal Interpolation Plot.

Figure 8‑1. Areas Pane



Figure 8‑2. Open Area File Browser


Figure 8‑3. Open Area File: Select Name Field



Figure 8‑4. Coordinate System


Figure 8‑5. Projection Information


Figure 8‑6. Additional Data Fields for Selected Projection


Figure 8‑7. Area Name Fields in Current Shapefile



9      Subsetting Spatial and Temporal Data

Both the Dataset pane and the Formula pane include the three panels discussed in Sections 9.1 through 9.3: Time Steps, Layers, and Domain, respectively. Section 9.4 then discusses the precedence rules for subsetting data that determine whether Datasets or Formulas take priority.

9.1      Specify Time Step Range

The Time Steps panel (Figure 9‑1) displays the range of time steps included in a dataset. The maximum time-step range that can be used for a dataset or formula is specified in the Min and Max spinner controls. You can use these controls to select a subset of the available time-step range for plotting. Check the Use Time Range box above the spinner controls to tell VERDI to use the time-step range values you have specified when it creates a plot. By default, a plot initially displays data for the minimum time step specified in the Time Steps panel. The range of time steps shown in the Time Step spinner control at the top of the plot reflects the subset of time steps specified when the Use Time Range box is checked. The date and time of the time step displayed in the plot are shown below the x-axis labels. Subsetting a dataset’s or formula’s time-step range affect plots produced with those data. Section 9.4 describes the precedence rules.

Figure 9‑1. Specify Time Step Range


9.2      Specify Layer Range

Information on the range of vertical model layers included in a dataset is displayed in the Layers panel (Figure 9‑2). Use the Min and Max spinner controls to select a subset of the available layer data for plotting. Check the Use Layer Range box above the spinner controls to tell VERDI to use the layers you have specified. By default, a plot will initially display data for the minimum layer chosen in the Layers panel. The range of the layers available in the Layer spinner control at the top of the plot matches the subset of layers specified when the Use Layer Range box is checked. Subsetting a dataset’s or formula’s layer range affects plots produced with those data. Section 9.4 describes the precedence rules.

Figure 9‑2. Edit Layer Range in Formula Pane


9.3      Specify Domain Range

Datasets contain data for cells over a particular geographic area. The VERDI program refers to this area as a domain. By default, the entire domain contained in a dataset is used in creating plots. Use the Edit Domain dialog box to select a subset of this domain for plotting.

To access the Edit Domain dialog box, first use the vertical slide bar to bring the Domain panel (located below the Layers panel) into view if it is not already visible (Figure 9‑3).  To select a subset of the domain, press the Edit button. The Edit Domain dialog box then appears (Figure 9‑4). If the area of interest is large, background data such as state and county outlines will be shown on the map. The magnifying glass buttons above the map can be used to zoom in and out on the map. Use the pan icon to drag the map to a position where the desired area is displayed. To select the desired cells, first press the Select Region button. You can then drag a box around the area of interest; selected cells will appear in blue. To clear the selected area, use the Clear Region button. When you are satisfied with the domain subset you have chosen, click the OK button. Subsetting a dataset’s or formula’s domain range affects plots produced with those data. Section 9.4 describes the precedence rules.

Figure 9‑3. Move the Domain Panel into View


Figure 9‑4. Edit Domain Dialog Box


9.4      Rules of Precedence for Subsetting Data

Use the subsetting feature to combine variables from two or more datasets that originally contained different but overlapping layer, time step and domain ranges. Select identical subsets of the data available in each dataset such that their time steps, layers, and domain ranges match. Then you can select variables from those datasets to create a formula and plot the data. Because both the Dataset pane and the Formula pane have the Time Steps, Layers, and Domain panels described above, precedence rules determine which pane’s settings take priority. It is important to understand these rules.

NOTE: You must check the appropriate boxes to have your selected ranges take effect.

·         Dataset precedence: A subset of data specified in the Dataset pane takes precedence over any subset specified in the Formula pane. However, VERDI does not change the ranges displayed in the Formula pane when you select a subset on the Datasets pane.  For example, if a dataset has a full time-step range of 0-48 and you select a time-step range of 2-40 on the Dataset pane, then the 0-48 time-step range that is listed for the formula in the Formula pane is not applicable. When you subsequently create a plot, the time-step range subset you chose in the Dataset pane (2-40) is displayed.

·         Formula ranges: If you do not specify a subset for a particular data type (time steps, layers, or domain) in the Dataset pane, then any subsetting for that data type in the Formula pane takes effect.

·         New formulas: If you create a formula using variables from multiple datasets, it is important to use the Formula pane to subset the domain range, if needed. Do not try to create matching subset domain ranges for multiple datasets using the Dataset pane for each dataset; if all of the subsets do not match exactly, VERDI will generate an error when you attempt to map a formula using variables from those datasets (Figure 9‑5). Instead, using the Formula pane to specify the subset of the domain to be applied for all dataset variables used in the formula.

Figure 9‑5. Error Generated When a Formula Uses Unequal Domains

10  Creating Plots

After creating a formula, you are ready to create and view some plots. The available plot types are shown on the buttons at the top of the VERDI main window: fast tile plot, areal interpolation plot, vertical cross section plot, time series plot, time series bar plot, scatter plot, and contour plot. All of these are described in this chapter. Note that not all datasets are appropriate for all plot types.

To generate a plot first highlight a formula in the list of formulas you have created in the Formula pane. You can also see the selected formula in the top right corner of the main VERDI screen (i.e., to the right of the plot buttons). Next, generate a plot by clicking on that plot type’s button. If VERDI needs additional information to generate your chosen plot, a dialog box appears to prompt you for that information.

Each plot contains its own menu bar at the top of its window with options for configuring and exploring that type of plot. The menus may include File, Configure, Controls, Plot, and GIS Layers. The options for each of these menus are described in more detail in Chapter 11, “Plot Menu Bar.”

10.1   Fast Tile Plot

The Fast Tile Plot allows the user to display the time steps and vertical layers contained in a gridded dataset and to display grid cell time aggregate statistics.  An example of the Fast Tile Plot window is shown in Figure 10‑1.

Figure 10‑1. Fast Tile Plot

10.1.1  Time Selection and Animation Controls

At the top left of the fast tile plot, the spin control can be used to change the time step by clicking the up or down arrow.  Alternatively, highlight the value shown for the current time step and type in the desired value; press the Enter key.

Buttons in the top right corner of the plot allow you to use play/stop, reverse, forward, and speed options to control the animation of the plot.  Control the speed of the animation through the text box labeled Slow; the default delay is 50 milliseconds between frames. If that text box is not visible, expand the plot window’s width by clicking with the left mouse button on the right edge of the window and dragging to the right. Enter a number in the box for the length of the delay and then press the Enter key. A larger plot with multiple map layers may require a shorter delay between frames than a small zoomed-in plot with few map layers.

10.1.2  Layer Selection

The Layer displayed for the plot can be controlled by clicking on the up or down arrow for the Layer spin control in the top center of the plot.

10.1.3  Grid Cell Time Aggregate Statistics

The pull down menu option labeled Stats provides the option to display grid cell time-aggregate statistics (e.g., per-cell minimum, maximum, mean, geometric mean, median, first quartile, third quartile, variance, standard deviation, coefficient of variance, range, interquartile range, sum, time step of minimum, time step of maximum, maximum 8-hour average, and hours of noncompliance).

VERDI calculates the grid cell time aggregate statistics as follows: For each cell (i,j,k) in the currently selected domain (independent of neighboring cells), the aggregated statistical value is calculated over the currently selected time steps. In other words, the aggregated statistical value is calculated for the plotted formula for cells (i,j,k,tmin...tmax), with the number of time steps n, where n=(tmax-tmin+1).

·         MINIMUM: min (var(i,j,k,tmin), var(i,j,k,tmin+1), ..., var(i,j,k,tmax))

·         MAXIMUM: max (var(i,j,k,tmin), var(i,j,k,tmin+1), ..., var(i,j,k,tmax))

·         MEAN: SUM / n

·         GEOMETRIC_MEAN: ((var(i,j,k,tmin), var(i,j,k,tmin+1), ..., var(i,j,k,tmax)))(1/n)

·         MEDIAN: value at 50th percentile of (sorted {var(i,j,k,tmin), var(i,j,k,tmin+1), ..., var(i,j,k,tmax)})

·         FIRST_QUARTILE: value at 25th percentile of( sorted (var(i,j,k,tmin), var(i,j,k,tmin+1), ..., var(i,j,k,tmax)))

·         THIRD_QUARTILE: value at 75th percentile of( sorted (var(i,j,k,tmin), var(i,j,k,tmin+1), ..., var(i,j,k,tmax)))

·         VARIANCE: ((var(i,j,k,tmin)-MEAN)2 + (var(i,j,k,tmin+1)-MEAN)2 + ... + (var(i,j,k,tmax)-MEAN)2) / (n - 1)





·         SUM: var(i,j,k,tmin) + var(i,j,k,tmin+1) + ... + var(i,j,k,tmax)

·         TIMESTEP_OF_MINIMUM: 0-based time step when cell contains its minimum value

·         TIMESTEP_OF_MAXIMUM: 0-based time step when cell contains its maximum value

·         HOURS_OF_NON_COMPLIANCE: number of time steps that the cell value exceeds a given threshold |{Var(I,j,k,t(i))>threshold}|

·         MAXIMUM_8HOUR_MEAN: Max (M1, M2, ..., Mn-8) where Mi = mean(var(i,j,k,t(i)), var(i,j,k,t(i)+1), var(i,j,k,t(i+2)), ...,var(i,j,k,t(i+8)), for i = 1..n-8

10.2   Areal Interpolation Plot

The areal interpolation plot displays the interpolated value of the selected formula for each polygon in the selected area file.  Compare the colors of the polygons to those shown in the legend, to see the relative values of the formula for each polygon area.  The Areal Interpolation Plot includes several capabilities that are not available for other plot types, so these are described below, rather than in Chapter 11: Plot Menu Bar.

10.2.1  Options Menu

The Areal Interpolation Plot menu contains an Options menu to allow the user to change the map to display either the Area Averages (Figure 10‑2), the Area Totals (Figure 10‑3), or the value of the formula contained in the Gridded Dataset (uninterpolated) (Figure 10‑4).  The Options pull-down menu may also be used to display All area segments that are loaded in the area list, or to display only the area segments that are selected by highlighting the name field from the area list (Figure 10‑5).


Figure 10‑2. Areal Plot: Area Average



Figure 10‑3. Areal Plot: Area Totals



Figure 10‑4. Areal Interpolation Plot: Show Gridded Data


Figure 10‑5. Areal Interpolation Plot: Show Selected Areas


10.2.2  Areal Values for Polygon Segment

To view the area, total value, and average value for a selected polygon segment use the mouse cursor to hover over a polygon on the map.  The values are shown at the bottom left of the information panel (Figure 10‑6).

Figure 10‑6. Areal Values for Polygon Segments

10.2.3  View and Export Areal Plot Data in Spreadsheet Format

To view the average and total interpolation values for selected formulas in a spreadsheet format, right click on the Areal Interpolation Plot and select Area Information (Figure 10‑7). The Area Information Spreadsheet contains four columns: the identification number from the name field for the polygon, the total area, average interpolated value, and total interpolated value (Figure 10‑8). At the top of the Area Information tab, the user may select File>Export to export the data to a spreadsheet file (Figure 10‑9).  The save popup window allows the user to specify with either a text (.txt) or comma-separated-values (*.csv) format, also known as a comma-delimited text file (Figure 10‑10).



Figure 10‑7. Right Click on Area Plot

Figure 10‑8. Area Information Spreadsheet




Figure 10‑9. Export Spreadsheet

Figure 10‑10. Name and Save Spreadsheet


10.2.4  Export Areal Plot Data to Shapefiles

NOTE: The capability described in this section has been disabled in VERDI 1.5 due to errors in geolocating data in the shapefile during the export. An improved version of this feature should be available in a future VERDI release.

At the top of the Area Information tab (Figure 10‑11), the user may select File>Export Shape Files to export the data to a shapefile. In the Save popup window (Figure 10‑12), input the name in the File Name field, and select file type: Shapefile (*.shp).  The data provided in the spreadsheet—name field, total area, average value, total value—are exported to the shapefile.  A GIS program such as User-friendly Desktop Internet GIS (uDig;, an open-source Java program, may be used to view the shapefiles generated by VERDI.  The shapefiles are saved as five separate files that must be kept together as part of the ESRI format (*.shp, *.dbf, *.prj, *.shx, and *.fix).  There are no units assigned to the data that are saved in the shapefile, so it is important for the user to keep a copy of the comma-delimited text file, or to keep some alternative text file that specifies the units for each data field.


Figure 10‑11. Export Shapefile

Figure 10‑12. Name and Save Shapefile

10.3    Vertical Cross Section Plot

The vertical cross section plot allows you to show a slice of data (Figure 10‑13). A popup dialog box (Figure 10‑14) prompts you for information needed to create the plot. Enter either the column to be used (for an x-axis cross section) or the row to be used (for a y-axis cross section) in the plot. The current time step on the plot can be changed using the Time Step spinner control above the plot, which also changes the date and time shown in the bottom of the plot. There is also a Column spinner control to change the column number (or row number). The cross-section column number (or row number) is included in the title of the plot and changes as you change the spinner control.

Figure 10‑13. Vertical Cross Section Plot

Figure 10‑14. Vertical Cross Section Dialog Box

10.4   Time Series Plot

The time series plot shows a line graph with the average values over time (Figure 10‑15). The plot is made for the formula’s selected domain, layer range, and time-step range.  Each time step’s data are averaged linearly to produce that time step’s data point.  The current layer can be changed using the Layer spinner control above the plot. The layer value listed in the title is updated when you change the layer.

Figure 10‑15. Time Series Plot

10.5   Time Series Bar Plot

The time series bar plot shows average values over time in a bar plot format (Figure 10‑16) rather than a line format (Figure 10‑15). Other than that, the description of this plot type is the same as for the time series line plot (see Section 10.4).

Figure 10‑16. Time Series Bar Plot

10.6   Scatter Plot

The scatter plot shows the relationship between two formulas using dots (Figure 10‑17). Specify the formulas using the dialog box that comes up before the plot is displayed (Figure 10‑18). The current time step and layer can be adjusted using the spinner controls above the plot. The data from a scatter plot may be exported by selecting the File menu option and then selecting Export data.  If your dataset has more than one layer or time step, a popup window (see Figure 10‑19) allows you to specify whether you want to export the data for the current layer, or for all layers, and for the current time step, or for all time steps.  Specify the time and layer ranges, and then click the OK button.  A Save popup dialog box appears.  Navigate to the directory in which you want to save this file and enter a file name with a .csv extension.  The CSV file will be comma-delimited, and will contain the following columns of data: layer, time step, x-axis formula, y-axis formula. You can open this file in Microsoft Excel or another spreadsheet program if your data does not contain too many rows (65,536 or 1,048,576 depending upon Excel version).

Figure 10‑17. Scatter Plot

Figure 10‑18. Scatter Plot Dialog Box


Figure 10‑19. Scatter Plot Export Data into a CSV file

10.7   Contour Plot

The contour plot shows a three-dimensional (3‑D) representation of values over a geographic area (Figure 10‑20). The current time step and layer can be adjusted using controls above the plot. You can also animate the plot over time using an option in the Plot pull-down menu (Figure 10‑21). In addition, the contour plots can be rotated in three dimensions to achieve different viewing angles by using the left mouse button to grab and rotate the plot (Figure 10‑22).

Figure 10‑20. Contour Plot

Figure 10‑21. Contour Plot Menu Options


Figure 10‑22. Rotated Contour Plot

11   Plot Menu Bar

Each VERDI plot contains its own menu bar that has options specific to that type of plot. As an example, the menu options at the top of a Fast Tile Plot include those shown in Figure 11‑1.   Most options are common to all plots, and function in the same way (unless the option is grayed out) for all plot types. Therefore, this chapter is organized by menu instead of by plot type.

Figure 11‑1. Fast Tile and Areal Plot Pull-down Menu Options

GIS Layers
Export as Image
Configure Plot
Load Configuration
Save Configuration
Time Series of Probed Cell(s)
Time Series Bar of Probed Cell(s)
Time Series of Min. Cell(s)
Time Series of Max. Cell(s)
Add Map Layers
Set Row and Column Ranges
Configure GIS Layers
Show Grid Lines
Animate Plot
Set Current Maps as Plot Default
Show Lat/Lon
Add Overlay

11.1   File Menu

Options in the File menu include printing a plot and exporting a plot to an image file. Plots can be saved as BMP, EPS, JPEG, PNG, or TIFF image file formats. The ASC format is an ASCII dump of the cell values. NOTE: The export to Shapefile is not available in VERDI 1.5.

11.2    Configure Menu

The Configure pull-down menu contains the following options: Configure Plot, Load Configuration, and Save Configuration. When you want to see your changes on the plot, press the Apply button. When you have finalized the settings for your plot, click the OK button to close the Configure Plot dialog box.

11.2.1  Configure Plot

This feature is available for only the Fast Tile Plot and the Areal Interpolation Plot. Figure 11‑2 through Figure 11‑5 show the dialog boxes that appear when you select Configure Plot. The Configure Plot dialog box contains four tabs: Titles, Color Map, Labels, and Other.

·         Titles tab (Figure 11‑2): Use the selections on this tab to edit title text and select the font type, size, and color for the title and two subtitles of the plot. Subtitles may be turned on or off by selecting or deselecting the check box for each subtitle.  If a check box is not selected the associated text, font type and size, and color boxes are grayed out. However, you must provide a title or VERDI will provide its default title for you. To blank out the title you must select it and then enter spaces for the name of the title. If you deselect the title VERDI will provide its default title for you.

o   Text: Enter the desired text directly in the textbox. You can enter text for the plot’s title and up to two optional subtitles.

o   Font: Press the Select button to the right of the Font line for the title or subtitle you wish to change. Your system’s standard Select Font dialog box is then displayed for you. Select a font family, font style, and size; press the OK button to return to the Configure Plot tab.

o   Color: Press the Select button to the right of the Color line for the title or subtitle to edit. There are five types of color palettes that you can use to select a color – Swatches, HSV, HSL, RGB, and CMYK – each on its own tab. When you select a color examples of its use are shown in the Preview portion of the Select Color window. Select the OK button to accept the color and return to the Titles tab of the Configure Plot dialog box.

·         Color Map tab (Figure 11‑3): This tab provides many widgets for you to configure your legend colors, break points, range, etc. You can select the number of tiles, the palette type to be used, the color interval, the number format, and the scale.

o   Number of Tiles: Start by selecting the number of tiles. Options in some other selections, such as the available palettes and break points, change as you vary the number of tiles.

o   Palette Type: Three palette types are available: Diverging, Qualitative, and Sequential. Diverging has dark colors at the maximum and minimum of the range and light colors in the middle. Qualitative has a mixture of colors. Sequential has a dark color on one end (typically the maximum) with lighter shades of the same color proceeding to the lightest shade at the minimum. The color palette that is frequently associated with air quality modeling results is one of the Newton RGB palettes of the Sequential type.

o   Reverse: The reverse button reverses the order of the colors in the selected palette. For example, if a sequential palette is used, the reverse button changes the color intensities such that the darkest color is at the minimum instead of the maximum of the scale.

o   Interval: The interval can be set to either Automatic or Custom. The typical setting is Automatic, meaning that VERDI calculates the interval break points based on the minimum and maximum values in the dataset. Change the interval to Custom if you need to edit the values for Interval Start for each color tile.

o   Number Format: To specify the number format used in the map legend, enter the format in the entry box using the C language's printf() routine's format syntax (e.g., for %1.2E, a zero in the legend would be printed with the format “0.00E0”; for %1.2F the format would be 0.00).  Then click the Rebuild button.

o   Scale: Select either Linear or Logarithmic. The interval start values are automatically adjusted when you change the scale.

o   Min and Max: The minimum and the maximum values are computed for the data to be plotted. If you set the Interval to Automatic, you can change the values for the minimum and maximum. Then, press the Rebuild button and the Apply button to see your changes both in the legend and on the map. You cannot edit the minimum or the maximum value if the Interval is set to Custom. Instead, directly edit the Interval Start values; the Interval Start value for the lowest interval is the same as the minimum value.

o   Rebuild: The Rebuild button is either active or inactive (i.e., grayed out) depending upon what other widgets are active. If you make changes and the Rebuild button is active, press it before continuing.

·         Labels tab (Figure 11‑4): This tab provides widgets for you to edit more labels on your plot. There are four tabs through which you can edit the labels of the Domain Axis (x-axis), the Range Axis (y-axis), Legend, and Footer.

o   Domain Axis: This tab has two parts: Label and Ticks. Use the Label panel the same way as the Titles tab (above) by editing the Text, Font, and Color. The Ticks panel allows you to change the labels associated with the ticks on the Domain Axis. The “Show Tick Labels” checkbox is typically checked, but you can uncheck it to not show any ticks or labels on this axis. Number allows you to decrease the number of tick labels. Note that you cannot increase the number of ticks via this screen and the values of the ticks do not change; you are effectively turning tick labels on/off via this checkbox. The Font and Color widgets work the same as for the Titles tab.

o   Range Axis: All the widgets on this tab are the same as on the Domain Axis tab. You are just making the changes for the Range Axis. Figure 11‑6 shows an example plot where the number of Tick Labels has been reduced in both the Range Axis and the Legend, but the number of tick labels has not been reduced in the Domain Axis.

o   Legend: All the widgets on this tab are the same as on the tabs for the axes. Use the Label part to designate and format the label that appears vertical in the left side of the legend box. The tick labels are for the boundaries between colors in the legend. If you uncheck the Show Tick Labels checkbox, the tick labels disappear from the legend. You cannot remove the legend entirely at this time in VERDI.

o   Footer: This tab is divided into three parts: Line One, Line Two, and Observations Data Legend. Lines One and Two are for the first and second lines of footers, respectively. VERDI automatically creates these lines for you, but you can either edit or remove them here. You cannot enter text for the Observational Data Legend if you do not have observational data on your plot.

·         Other tab (Figure 11‑5): You can use the widgets on this tab to enable or disable showing the grid lines, and to edit the vector arrow color and the series color. 

Figure 11‑2. Configure Plot, Titles Tab

Figure 11‑3. Configure Plot, Color Map Tab

Figure 11‑4. Configure Plot, Labels Tab

Figure 11‑5. Configure Plot, Other Tab

Figure 11‑6. Example Plot with Selected Tick Marks for Range Axis and Legend

11.2.2   Save Configuration

If you have made changes to the configuration of a plot, and want to reuse that configuration for other plots, use the Save Configuration selection from the Configure menu. It is very important (1) to name the file in a manner that you will remember what it contains and (2) to save the file in a logical place so you will be able to find it when you need it.

The file name should indicate the formula name, the dataset, and the type of plot from which it was saved. Also, use the “.cfg” extension to indicate that it is a configuration file. An example file name is <FormulaName>_<DatasetFilename>_<PlotType>.cfg, or “O3_CCTM_base_tile.cfg”. 

You may decide to keep your configuration files with projects to which they relate or in a common directory. If you put them into a directory, a convenient place may be under the USER_HOME/verdi directory. For example, in Windows you already have a \Users\username\verdi directory. Add a config_files subdirectory and save your configuration files there. In a Linux-based system create the ~/verdi/config_files directory.

When you choose to save your configuration, VERDI displays a popup box asking if you want to save the title/subtitles. When VERDI displays a file chooser, navigate to your directory and enter the file name. Press the Save button. Although the configuration files generated by VERDI look similar to HTML or XML files, they are just text files containing tags compatible with the parser in VERDI. You can look at the contents of these files in a plain text editor (e.g., Notepad), but be very careful if you decide to change their contents; you could make the file unusable.

11.2.3  Load Configuration

To load a plot configuration file, first create a new plot that is of the same type and uses the same formula as that within the configuration file. Then select the Load Configuration option from the Configure menu on that plot.  An Open File Dialog window enables you to navigate to the directory in which you saved the configuration file. Select the file you need and press the Open button.  The plot title (if saved), color map, and other plot configuration features are then applied to the plot. 

Note that it is possible to load a saved configuration file that does not apply to the selected plot. VERDI may try to load what it can, which may result in something other than what you had expected. Therefore, before loading a saved plot configuration check carefully to be sure the plot type and formula of the configuration file match those of the new plot.

You can also load configuration files in batch or command line scripts by setting the parameter configFile (e.g., configFile=C:\\User\\username\\VERDI_1.5\\data\configs\o3_10bin.cfg).

11.3   Controls Menu

The Controls pull-down menu contains the following options: Zoom, Probe, Set Row and Column Ranges, Show Grid Lines, and Show Lat/Lon.

11.3.1  Zoom

To zoom in and enlarge a subdomain of the plot, select the Zoom option. Then use your left mouse button to draw a rectangle around your region of interest on the plot. To zoom out click on the map using your right mouse button to bring up the context menu (Figure 11‑7). Move your cursor over either Zoom Out or Max Zoom Out and press the left mouse button. The Zoom Out selection performs a step zoom and the Max Zoom Out selection zooms out to the full extent of the plot.

Figure 11‑7. Right-Click on Fast Tile Plot to Zoom Out

11.3.2  Probe

To determine the data value at a specific point or within a subregion, select the Probe option. Probe at a Single Point

To probe a single data point, use the mouse to hover the cursor over that grid cell on the plot; the coordinates of the grid cell are shown in the lower right-hand side of the plot in the format (column, row). Once you click on the grid point of interest, the value of the datum at that grid point is displayed in the lower left-hand area of VERDI main window (Figure 11‑8).

Figure 11‑8. Click on Plot to Probe: Data Value Shown in Lower Left of VERDI, Latitude/Longitude Values Shown in Lower Right Probing a Domain Region of Data

When you have Probe selected you can examine the values of a region of grid cells. Use your mouse to draw a rectangle on the plot by clicking on a point on the map, dragging the mouse to the opposite corner of your desired rectangle, and then release the mouse button. VERDI will create a spreadsheet displaying the grid values and will place it in the plot area of the VERDI main window as a tabbed window (Figure 11‑9).  The File>Export menu option at the top of the spreadsheet allows you to save probed data as a comma-delimited text file (*.csv).

Figure 11‑9. Spreadsheet Showing Probed Values for Region of Interest

11.3.3  Set Row and Column Ranges

The Controls>Set Row and Column Ranges menu item will bring up a popup window that allows the user to configure the minimum and maximum values used in the columns (x-axis domain) and rows (y-axis range) (Figure 11‑10 and Figure 11‑11).  Specify the values and then click the OK button to redraw the plot.

Figure 11‑10. Select Set Row and Column Ranges

Figure 11‑11. Enter Row and Column Values

11.3.4  Show Grid Lines

Use the Show Grid Lines selection on the Controls menu if you want to have grid lines overlaid on your plot. Figure 11‑12 shows one reason for wanting grid lines. There is a set of grid cells with relatively high ozone values for the selected time step and layer. By zooming in on the plot and then showing the grid lines, the individual cells can be identified for further analysis.

NOTE: You cannot change your zoom level while the grid lines are showing. If you need to zoom in or out, uncheck the Show Grid Lines, set your zoom level, and then check the Show Grid Lines.


Figure 11‑12. Show Grid Lines on a Fast Tile Plot

11.3.5  Show Latitude and Longitude

To view the latitude and longitude values for a point on the plot, select the Show Lat/Lon option on the Controls menu, then hover your cursor over the location for which you would like to know those values. The lat/lon coordinates will be displayed in the lower right-hand side of the window (Figure 11‑13). The option to display the lat/lon coordinates may be selected, and works with either the Zoom or the Probe option. 

Figure 11‑13. Lat/Lon Values Shown in Lower Right of VERDI


11.4    Plot Menu Options

The Plot pull-down menu (Figure 11‑14) contains the following options: Time Series of Probed Cell(s), Time Series Bar of Probed Cell(s), Time Series of Min. Cell(s), Time Series of Max Cell(s), Animate Plot, and Add Overlay. NOTE: The Time Series of Probed Cells and the Time Series Bar of Probed Cells selections are grayed out until you select a grid cell or multiple grid cells using Controls>Probe menu selection.


Figure 11‑14. Plot Menu Options

11.4.1  Time Series Plots

The Time Series of Probed Cell(s) and Time Series Bar of Probed Cell(s) allows the user to select a set of cells, and then produce a time series or time series bar plot of the chosen subset of probed cells. The Time Series of Min. [or Max.] Cell(s) option creates a time series plot using data for the currently selected formula at that formula’s domain, layer range, and time step range. The minimum [or maximum] value of that formula over the domain and layer range at that time step is calculated by VERDI and used for each of the time step’s data points. For examples of the Time Series Plot and the Time Series Bar Plot see Figure 10‑15 and Figure 10‑16, respectively.

11.4.2  Animate Plots

You can create an animated plot by selecting the Animate Plot option. The Time Series and Time Series Bar Plots do not have an Animate Plot option. The plots that may be animated include: Fast Tile, Areal Interpolation, Vertical Cross Section, and Contour Plot. An Animate Plot dialog box (Figure 11‑15) will appear, allowing you to save animations either as an animated GIF with a file extension of .gif or as a QuickTime movie with a file extension of .mov.  This Plot menu option is plot-specific and so does not allow you to animate more than one plot at a time.  To animate multiple plots, you will need to use the Plots pull-down menu at the top of the VERDI main window; see Section 5.2.2, “Animate Tile Plots.”

Figure 11‑15. Animate Plot Dialog Box

11.4.3  Add Overlays

VERDI supports two types of overlays – observations and vectors. For both types of overlays you may need to add data from another data file onto that in the underlying plot. Observational Data Overlays

It is useful to visually compare the results contained in model output datasets with the data points in observational datasets. You can do this by creating a Fast Tile Plot of the model output and then overlaying it with observational data points. The observational dataset needs to be in a csv- or tab-delimited format or an I/O API observational data format. See Chapter 13 for more information about how to convert AIRS observational data into this latter format. 

Sample observational data are provided in the directory $VERDI_HOME/data/obs so you can create a sample Observational Data Overlay Plot.  Follow these instructions to create your plot.

·         Load a model output dataset.

·         Load an observational dataset. Note that an OBS label appears to the right of the dataset name in the Dataset pane.

·         Double-click on a variable in an observational dataset and add it to the Variable pane. Note that an OBS label appears to the right of the dataset name in the Variable pane.

·         Create a formula in the Formula pane using a variable from the model output dataset. Use this formula to create a fast tile plot. (NOTE: If you attempt to use a formula that contains a variable from an observational dataset, the following error will occur:  “Error while evaluating formula: Selected dataset is observational.”

·         Select Add Overlay>Observations from the fast tile plot’s Plot menu to view observational data as an overlay on a fast tile plot.

An Observation dialog box (

·         Figure 11‑16) appears containing the variables that are available in the observational dataset. Select the observational variable to overlay on the Fast Tile Plot from the Observation Details list. Multiple observational dataset variables can be overlaid on a Fast Tile Plot. 

·         You can control the appearance of the symbols representing the observational data. The stroke size controls the thickness of the line used to draw the symbols; the shape size controls their diameter. You can use up to six different open-area shapes—circle, diamond, square, star, sun, and triangle—to distinguish among multiple observational datasets. A circle is the default symbol shape.

·         Select Add Variable and then OK to overlay the observational data on the fast tile plot (Figure 11‑17).

Repeat the above process to add multiple variables. To remove the symbols for a variable on an observational data overlay, or to reset their size, shape, or stroke thickness, reopen the Observation dialog by using Add Overlay>Observations, select the observational variable you want to adjust, and then change its stroke size, shape size, or symbol. You can also remove a variable or move it up or down in the list. When you are finished click the OK button. 

The center of the observational data point corresponds to the lat/lon value that is provided in the I/O API observational data file. If observations are collocated, they are placed on top of one another. If that happens you may want to select different symbols or sizes for each dataset and place them from largest on the bottom to smallest on the top.

Figure 11‑16. Fast Tile Plot Observation Dialog

Figure 11‑17. Fast Tile Plot with Observational Data Overlay Vector Overlays

Follow these instructions to add a vector overlay to a fast tile plot. Typically, these are created to show wind speed and direction on a plot of gridded air quality data. The length of the calculated vectors is proportional to their magnitude.

·         Create your Fast Tile Plot.

·         If the data for your vectors are not in the same dataset, load the correct one and select the formulas that you will need for the vectors.

·         Select the Add Overlay>Vectors option from the fast tile plot’s Plot pull-down menu (Figure 11‑14).

·         Select the two components of your vector in the Vector Overlay dialog box (Figure 11‑18). Typically, these are the East-West (u) and North-South (v) components of the wind. Assign the u component to Horizontal and the v component to Vertical.

·         Click the OK button and the vector overlays are displayed on the plot.

NOTE: At this time you cannot control how the vectors are displayed, and there is no option to remove the vectors from the plot. If you need to make a change, you must start again with your Fast Tile Plot.

Currently, vectors are plotted in the center of the grid cell.  UWIND and VWIND are typically obtained from METCRO3D, which are defined at dot points or cell corners.  Plotting the wind vector at their calculated locations will be added to the Fast Tile Plot in a future release.

Figure 11‑18. Vector Overlay Dialog Box

An example of an ozone concentration Fast Tile Plot with a wind vector overlay is shown in Figure 11‑19. The length of each vector is proportional to its length. The direction of the vector is calculated from the direction and magnitudes of its two components. This figure illustrates how the wind changes speed and direction in this portion of the modeling domain for layer 1, time step 1.

Figure 11‑19. Wind Vector Overlay on an Ozone Fast Tile Plot

11.5   GIS Layers

The GIS Layers menu contains the following options: Add Map Layers, Configure GIS Layers, and Set Current Maps as Plot Default. The map layers are currently in the BIN format (created by the SHAPE2BIN tool distributed with VERDI) but development plans are to replace them with Shapefiles.

11.5.1  Add Map Layers

Use the Add Maps Layers option in the GIS Layers menu to add maps to a Fast Tile Plot or Areal Interpolation Plot (Figure 11‑20). 

A selection of default maps—including World, North America. USA States, USA Counties, HUCs, Rivers, and Roads—can be selected or deselected by clicking on the respective menu selection.  A check mark then appears or disappears next to the chosen map name, and the selected map appears on the plot. 

Figure 11‑20. Add Map Layers

The Fast Tile Plot and Areal Interpolation Plot use the BIN format for all maps and GIS layers.  A shape2bin program that runs on Linux and Windows platforms is provided with the VERDI distribution to allow you to convert new map shapefiles to the BIN format for these plots.  The shape2bin tool requires an unprojected shapefile as input.  For example, if you try to convert a shapefile in a Lambert projection you will get an error.


·         Extract the that is located under $VERDI_HOME/VERDI_1.5/ directory using: unzip

·         cd shape2bin

·         Several Linux binary executables are provided with the code under the bin directory.  A makeit script is provided that documents the compiler flags and options used to build the executables.

·         Edit the runit script to specify DATA_DIR as the directory where your shapefiles are located.  Run the script using the syntax: ./runit  The bin files will be written to the directory containing the shapefiles.

·         After the script has run, copy the new bin file from the DATA_DIR directory to the bin map directory: $VERDI_HOME/Verdi_1.5/plugins/bootstrap/data; VERDI looks in this location for bin formatted files. Several shapefiles and their converted bin files are provided under the bin map directory.


·         Extract the file provided under the $VERDI_HOME/verdi_1.5 directory by double-clicking on the file.

·         Copy the two files cygwin1.dll and shape2bin.exe to the bin map directory: VERDI_HOME\plugins\bootstrap\data

·         Place the shapefile(s) that you would like to convert into the bin map directory.

·         Start a command window by pressing the Start button and entering cmd.

·         cd VERDI_HOME\plugins\bootstrap\data

·         Type the command shape2bin, and it will provide the format that you should use to convert a shapefile to a bin file (see Figure 11‑21)

Figure 11‑21. shape2bin command usage

11.5.2  Configure GIS Layers

To show an additional map on the plot, select the Configure GIS Layers option in the GIS Layers menu. When you click on this item, a dialog box titled Manage Layers gives you the following options: Move Up, Move Down, and Remove Layer (Figure 11‑22). The Edit Layer option has been removed in VERDI 1.5. A new edit option will be provided in a future release as part of changing from BIN to Shapefile GIS layers.

Figure 11‑22. Manage Layers Dialog Box


·         To rearrange the order in which the GIS layers are displayed on the plot, select a layer in the Manage Layers dialog box, and then select Move Up or Move Down. Click the OK button to reposition the order of that layer within the list.  If the layers that you are selecting are boundaries and were created to have a transparent fill, then rearranging the order of the layers will not change the look of the boundaries on the plot.

·         To remove a GIS layer from the plot, select that layer in the list and select Remove Layer. Then click the OK button to remove it.


12   Supported Grid and Coordinate Systems (Map Projections)

VERDI makes calls to the netCDF Java library to obtain the grid and coordinate system information about the data directly from the model data input files when the input data files are self-describing (CMAQ, SMOKE, WRF netCDF format files).  

12.1   I/O API-formatted Data

For I/O API files, support for Lambert conformal conic (LCC) map projection, Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) map projection, and polar stereographic map projection was added in VERDI 1.1., and Mercator projection in VERDI 1.2.  The grid projections listed on the following website are supported, although not all have been tested:

Users that need VERDI to support other projections are encouraged to provide small input datasets as attachments to emails to the m3user listserv, or via ftp, for testing and to facilitate future development efforts.  Figure 12‑1 through Figure 12‑4 illustrate sample plots generated for datasets with LCC, polar stereographic, Mercator, and UTM map projections, respectively.

Figure 12‑1. Lambert Conformal Conic Map Projection Example Plot

Figure 12‑2. Polar Stereographic Map Projection Example Plot

Figure 12‑3. Mercator Map Projection Example Plot

Figure 12‑4. UTM Map Projection Example Plot

12.2   CAMx Gridded Data

The netCDF-java library used in VERDI includes support for CAMx UAM‑IV binary files using a preset default projection.  CAMx or UAM binary files contain information about the x and y offsets from the center of the projection in meters, but do not contain information about the projection.  The projection information is available in separate diagnostic files, which are part of the CAMx output along with the UAM binaries (Figure 12‑5).

Figure 12‑5. Example CAMx diagnostic text file

The  netCDF-java library writes the default projection information to a text file in the directory where the CAMx binary (UAM-IV) file is located.  You can then review and edit the projection information to make it consistent with the projection specified in the CAMx diagnostic text files.  The definitions of the projection parameters used in the camxproj.txt file are defined using Models-3 I/O API format  You must edit the camxproj.txt file to match the grid description information provided in the corresponding camx.diag file. Figure 12‑6 shows the definition for the grid projection parameters for a Lambert conformal conic projection.

Figure 12‑6. Models-3 I/O API Map Projection Parameters for Lambert Conformal Conic Projection

Figure 12‑7 shows the values of the camxproj.txt after editing it to match the values of the camx.diag file (Figure 12‑5) using the definitions of the Models-3 grid parameters (Figure 12‑6).  Figure 12‑8 shows the resulting Fast Tile Plot of the CAMx sample dataset.

Figure 12‑7. Edited Example Projection File: camxproj.txt

Figure 12‑8. CAMx Example Plot


13  I/O API Utilities, Data Conversion Programs, and Libraries

As discussed in Section 6.1, routines are available to convert gridded input data to I/O API format or new code can be written and contributed to VERDI for use by the community. The I/O API routines that have been written to convert data into this format are discussed in this section. If you are unable to use the available routines to convert your data and have a gridded dataset that VERDI is unable to read, please contact VERDI support via with a description of the dataset.

The I/O API Interface contains an extensive set of utility routines. There are example conversion programs to convert data from different data formats into the I/O API format. The I/O API Utilities are command line programs that are easy to script for automating analysis and post processing. An example of an I/O API Utility that may be useful to VERDI users is m3merge. This utility merges selected variables from a set of input files for a specified time period, and writes them to a single output file, with optional variable-renaming in the process. Another utility that you may find useful is m3xtract. This program allows you to extract a few species from a large file and save them to a smaller file on your local computer so you can explore them using VERDI. The I/O API Related Programs and Examples can be found at the following web site:

Airs2m3 is an example of a data conversion program that converts the standard AIRS AMP350 observational data format to the I/O API format. The airs2m3 program requires the following inputs:

·         The input AIRS AMP350 print format file name.

·         The time zone conversion file (provided with the obs2api program - tzt.dat).

·         Additional hour shift variable. The AIRS data are hourly averaged, and a 00 time flag represents the hour 00-01. You may wish to represent that data segment by the ending hour. In that case, a 1 should be entered here.

·         Starting year, month, day, hour (GMT) (e.g., 1997 07 10 12).

·         Ending year, month, day, hour (GMT) (e.g., 1997 07 16 12).

·         Name of output variable (8 characters max) (e.g., O3_OBS).

14  Contributing to VERDI Development

If you have made an improvement to VERDI’s source code or documentation, please consider contributing it back to the community. You can start by requesting update notifications from VERDI’s SourceForge site:

Instructions on how to set up the Eclipse Development Environment and for running and building VERDI within Eclipse are available on the official VERDI web site:  If you anticipate doing software development on VERDI, you should contact the members of the VERDI project via

VERDI developers will test contributions to the source code and review the applicable documentation changes for inclusion in future VERDI releases.  Note that anything you contribute must have the same license as the rest of VERDI, i.e. GPL.

The m3user listserv can be used to query known errors, bugs, suggested enhancements, or submitted code contributions using the following website:  First, check to see if your issue is already listed as a bug or request for enhancement.  If you do not see a matching entry, please submit an email to the listserv If you are not yet a member, use the following web site to join:


15  Known Bugs

As discussed in Section 1.4, you are encouraged to use the VERDI FAQ and m3user listserv  for searching questions and answers, bug reports, and suggestions.    



16  Mathematical Functions

All VERDI visualizations are the result of a formula evaluation. Formulas operate on the variables provided by the datasets. The simplest valid formula consists of a single variable; for example, “O3[1]” is the parameter O3 from current dataset 1. Using infix notation, you can construct more complicated formulas using the mathematical operators and functions listed below. (Note that the documentation below derives from the equivalent documentation for the Package for Analysis and Visualization of Environmental data [PAVE], which is available at

Note that the Batch Script method does not support all of the mathematical functions that are supported within the VERDI GUI and/or the command line script options.

Listed in order of precedence, the functions and operators are:

1.      abs, sqr, sqrt, exp, log, ln, sin, cos, tan, sind, cosd, tand, mean, sum, min, max

2.      ** (power)

3.      /, *

4.      +, -

5.      <, <=, >, >=

6.      ==, !=

7.      &&

8.      ||

VERDI also supports the following constants:

1.      E    2.7182818284590452354

2.      PI  3.14159265358979323846

3.      NROWS   Number of rows in the formula’s currently selected domain

4.      NCOLS     Number of columns in the formula’s currently selected domain

5.      NLEVELS            Number of levels in the formula’s currently selected domain

16.1   Unary Functions

Unary functions are passed a single argument. Depending on the argument and the function type, the function returns a single value or a matrix of data by performing the function on each cell of the arguments array. For example:

o   sqrt(4): Returns 2.0.

o   sqrt(O3[1]): Returns a matrix containing the square root of each value in the O3[1] variable’s array.

The following functions return a matrix when passed a dataset variable:

o   abs: Returns the absolute value of the argument

o   sqrt: Returns the square root of the argument.

o   sqr: Returns the square of the argument.

o   log: Returns the base 10 logarithm of the argument.

o   exp: Returns Euler’s number raised the power of the argument.      

o   ln: Returns the natural logarithm of the argument.

o   sin: Returns the sine of the argument. The argument is in radians.

o   cos: Returns the cosine of the argument. The argument is in radians.

o   tan: Returns the tangent of the argument. The argument is in radians.

o   sind: Returns the sine of the argument. The argument is in degrees.

o   cosd: Returns the cosine of the argument. The argument is in degrees.       

o   tand: Returns the tangent of the argument. The argument is in degrees.

The following functions return a single number in all cases when passed a dataset variable:

o   mean: Average cell value for all cells in currently selected domain.

o   sum: Sum of all cell values in currently selected domain.

o   min: For each cell (i,j,k) in the currently selected domain, this calculates the minimum value for that cell over the currently selected time steps. In other words, the minimum value in cells (i,j,k,tmin..tmax).

o   max: For each cell (i,j,k) in the currently selected domain, this calculates the maximum value for that cell over the currently selected time steps. In other words, the maximum value in cells (i,j,k,tmin..tmax).

16.2   Binary Operators

Binary operators are not passed a value but operate on the operands to their left and right. Typically, they return a matrix of data by performing the operation on each cell of the operand’s arrays. If both of the operands are single numbers then these binary operators return a single number. For example:

o   O3[1] * 2: multiplies each item in the O3[1] array by 2 and returns the result.

o   O3[1] * O3[3]: multiplies each item in the O3[1] array by the corresponding item in the O3[3] array and returns the result. (Note that this assumes that the arrays are of equivalent shape.)

o   3 * 2: multiplies 3 by 2.

The binary operators:

o   + Returns the sum of the operands

o   - Returns the difference of the operands

o   * Returns the product of the operands

o   / Returns the ratio of the operands

o   ** Returns the left operand raised to the power of the right operand

16.3   Boolean Operators

Boolean binary operators return either 1 or 0 in each cell of the resulting matrix. If the operands are single numbers, then a single 1 or 0 is returned. The Boolean binary operators:

o   < Returns 1 if the left operand is less than the right operand, else 0

o   <= Returns 1 if the left operand is less than or equal to the right operand, else 0

o   > Returns 1 if the left operand is greater than the right operand, else 0

o   >= Returns 1 if the left operand is greater than or equal to the right operand, else 0

o   != Returns 1 if the left operand is not equal to the right operand, else 0

o   == Returns 1 if the left operand is equal to the right operand, else 0

o   && Returns 1 if both operands are nonzero, else 0

o   || Returns 1 if either operand is nonzero, else 0

16.4   Time Step Index

A time step index can be specified after a variable name. For example, “O3[1]:0” is the value of the O3[1] variable at the first time step.

17   VERDI Batch Script Editor

To open the Script Editor, use File>View Script Editor (Figure 17‑1).  Prior running a batch script, remove all datasets from the dataset list. To remove a dataset, click on each dataset in the dataset panel and press the yellow minus button.

Figure 17‑1. File: View Script Editor


An Open popup window will be displayed, click on a sample script file in the VERDI_1.5/data/scripts directory (Figure 17‑2).

Figure 17‑2. Open Popup Window

After you select a script file and click Open in the Open popup window, the Script Editor window (Figure 17‑3 and Figure 17‑4) appears in the right-hand side of VERDI.  Use the Script Editor to edit, save, and run batch scripts within VERDI.  The Batch Scripting Language used for the VERDI Script Editor is described in the header of the sample text format script files (Figure 17‑3). 

Figure 17‑3. Top of Sample Script File – VERDI_1.5/data/scripts/file_patterns.txt

Figure 17‑4. Bottom of Sample Script File – VERDI_1.5/data/scripts/tile_patterns.txt

As shown in Figure 17‑3 and Figure 17‑4, the Batch Script File format consists of two blocks – a Global block and a Task Block.  The Global block allows you to specify a set of parameters (such as the file and directory names) on which all other tasks are performed.  In this block you can specify any parameters that are used to run any other tasks.  If the same parameters are specified with different values in a subsequent Task block, those values will overwrite the values specified in the Global block. One Global Block specifies the common parameters shared by all Task blocks, and multiple task blocks can be defined to specify the type of batch operations that will be performed (e.g., defining formulas and creating plots).

Unload all datasets before running a batch script within the Script Editor.  If any dataset is not unloaded a warning message will pop up (Figure 17‑5) requesting that you close all datasets before running your batch script.

Figure 17‑5. Close Datasets Warning Message

The multifiles.txt sample script that is provided as part of the VERDI 1.5 release demonstrates how to create a tile plot using a mathematical combination of variables. An excerpt of that script is shown below.

<Task> dir=D:\\verdi-dist2\\data\\model f=copy.36k.O3MAX f=CCTM46_P16.baseO2a.36k.O3MAX f=another.36k.O3MAX s=O3[1]-O3[2]+O3[3]*2 gtype=tile saveImage=jpeg imageDir=D:\\verdi-dist2 imageFile=three_components_36k.O3MAX </Task>

The above task specifies the name of three input files.  The input files are assigned a number based on the order in which they are specified.




s=O3[1]-O3[2]+O3[3]*2 defines a formula that uses variables from the three filenames

This formula takes ozone in file 1 and subtracts the ozone in file 2 and adds two times the ozone in file 3.

The type of plot is specified as a tile plot by setting the parameter gtype to tile (i.e., gtype=tile).

The image file format is specified by setting the parameter saveImage to jpeg (i.e., saveImage=jpeg).

The output directory where the images will be stored is specified by setting the parameter imageDir (i.e., imageDir=D:\\verdi-dis2).

The image file name is specified by setting the parameter imageFile; imageFile=three_components_36k.O3MAX.

Use the left mouse button to highlight the task that you would like to run and then click Run in the Script Editor window. A popup window then appears to indicate the task ran successfully (Figure 17‑6).  In this example the title and subtitle were obtained from the definition in the global block.  Aspects of the plot defined in the global block are used for multiple tasks and are applied even if only a highlighted task is run.

Figure 17‑6. Highlight Text to Select Task and Click Run

If you select Run without highlighting a Text Block, then the entire batch script executes and generates the plots. To edit the batch script, highlight a segment that you would like to copy and use Ctrl-C to copy the text; then click in an area where you want to paste the text and use Ctrl-V to insert the copied text.  Test your changes to the script by highlighting the text block and click run.  When your script executes successfully VERDI displays the popup window shown in Figure 17‑7.

NOTE: Click either the Save or the Save As… button to save your edits before exiting the Script Editor.

After saving the script file (e.g. C:\verdi-script\myscript.txt), you can run the batch script directly from command lines without invoking the VERDI GUI. On a Windows computer, start a command window, navigate to the directory containing your run.bat file, and then run this command:

run.bat –batch C:\verdi-script\myscript.txt

On Linux/Mac platforms, change directory to where the is located and execute this command (assuming your script file myscript.txt is saved in /home/user/verdi-script directory):

./ –batch /home/user/verdi-script/myscript.txt

(Note: the full path to the batch script must be specified. Neglecting to provide the full path along with the batch script name generates the following error: No such file or directory.) The batch script usage (see Figure 17‑3) will also be displayed from the command line after typing the following command:


run.bat –batch


./ –batch

Figure 17‑7. Successful Batch Script Message

If the user has specified an incorrect path, or incorrect filename for the input dataset, then a series of error messages will appear, starting with the message shown in Figure 17‑8.

Figure 17‑8. Unsuccessful Batch Script Message: File not found


The VERDI Batch Editor checks to see if the path specified by the user as the imageDir exists. If the path does not exist, VERDI displays the error message:

“ with the path and filename listed”

followed by the message “(No such file or directory).” Verify that you supplied the correct path and filename. The directory specified as the image directory must exist prior to running the batch command. Double-click on the file in the imageDir directory to load and view the image file in your default visualization software.   Figure 17‑9 illustrates the tile plot image that was generated by running the highlighted text block.

Figure 17‑9. Plot Image Generated by Task Block

17.1   Specify hour/time step formula in batch script mode

Specify the timestep using the format:  

VARIABLE[dataset number]:timestep.

The batch script notation used to specify an hour/time step involves specifying the formula then the hour: O3[1]:17 will result in Ozone for hour 17 from a given file in scripting mode (see Figure 17-10).


The batch script can be used to generate plots of a specific hour or time step using the formula




for example:


s=O3[1]:17 to plot the Temperature in first dataset for hour 17


Batch Script Example:










f= CCTM46_P16.baseO2a.36k.O3MAX

imageFile= CCTM46_P16.baseO2a.36k.O3MAX.tstep.17




Figure 17‑10. Fast Tile Plot of Ozone at Time step 17, Layer 1

17.2   Mathematical function capability in batch script mode

This update provides the user the ability to perform mathematical functions in VERDI using the scripting mode. For example, Find maximum over all time steps at each grid cells.

The batch script can be used to generate plots for each mathematical function by using the task block to define each function.   The notation used within the task block is:


For example:

s=max(O3[1]) to plot the Maximum value over all timesteps for each grid cell in the domain.

s=min(O3[1]) to plot the Minimum value over all timesteps for each grid cell

s=mean(O3[1]) to plot the Mean value over all timesteps for each grid cell

s=sum(O3[1]) to plot the Sum of the variable over all timesteps for each grid cell

The mathematical functions operate over all time steps at each grid cell. Examples for the batch script notation and the images produced are provided in the following sections.

17.2.1  Batch Script Example: Maximum Ozone – layer 1 (Figure 17-11)









f= CCTM46_P16.baseO2a.36k.O3MAX




Figure 17‑11. Fast Tile Plot of Maximum Air Temperature (aggregated over 25 time steps)

17.2.2  Batch Script Example : Minimum Ozone – layer 1 (Figure 17-12)








f= CCTM46_P16.baseO2a.36k.O3MAX




Figure 17‑12. Fast Tile Plot of Minimum Ozone (aggregated over 25 time steps)

17.2.3  Batch Script Example : Mean of Ozone – layer 1 (Figure 17-13)








f= CCTM46_P16.baseO2a.36k.O3MAX




Figure 17‑13. Fast Tile Plot of Mean Ozone (aggregated over 25 time steps)

17.2.4  Batch Script Example : Sum of Ozone – layer 1 (Figure 17-14)








f= CCTM46_P16.baseO2a.36k.O3MAX




Figure 17‑14. Fast Tile Plot of the Sum of Ozone (aggregated over 25 time steps)


18  Command Line Scripting

The commands described in this section can be executed from the command line through either command line arguments or Windows batch files. In Linux, you can edit the script, adding the command options at the end of the last line of the script. If you are using Windows, edit the run.bat script, again adding the command options at the end of the last line, and submitting the script at the windows command line. An example syntax for all commands follows the format

<command> <command options> \

where the “\” at the end of the command is optional.

18.1   Example Command Line Script for Linux Users

Set an environment variable $VERDI_HOME by using

setenv VERDI_HOME /home/a_username/VERDI_1.5

Where a_username is your username.

The following script options will read in the file as the first dataset, select O3[1] as the formula from dataset 1, and create a tile plot of the O3[1].

./ -f “$VERDI_HOME/data/model/CCTM46_P16.baseO2a.36k.O3MAX -s O3[1] -gtype tile

Example script file (Note that quotes (as shown highlighted in red) may be needed around the entire list of parameters” :


#! /bin/csh -f
#### 8hO3 Daily Max Plot
setenv DIR /home/training/verdi_1.5/data/OBS
../../ \
"-f $DIR/ACONC_O3_8hr.dmax \
-f $DIR/AQS_overlay_2002_07.ncf \
-configFile /home/training/config.txt \
-s O3[1] \
-s O38[2]*1000"

Note: Currently, the syntax for the command line script is slightly different than the syntax for the batch script.  For example, the batch script method supports requesting a plot of hour 12 using the notation O3[1]:12, but the command line script option requires the variable name and time step be specified independently:

-s O3[1]
-ts 12

18.2   Example Command Line Script for Windows Users

Edit the run.bat script in the VERDI_1.5 directory by right clicking on the file and selecting edit.

Figure 18‑1. Location of run.bat script in Windows

The current run.bat in notepad contains a “%1” at the end that allows it to accept input following the run.bat script using the Windows run command.  Unfortunately, this command does not accept directory names that have a space them, such as the “Program Files”.  If you would like to enter the script command line options after run.bat, please move the data directory to C:\VERDI\data or some other similar location.

Enter the following in the Run command: cmd

When a command line window opens do the following:

cd C:\Program Files\VERDI_1.5\

run.bat "-f C:\\VERDI\\data\\CCTM46_P16.baseO2a.36k.O3MAX -s O3[1] -gtype tile"

The other option is to place the script commands within the run.bat itself.  Remove the “%1” statement at the end of the run.bat that is provided in the distribution, and add the script options that you would like to use.  The following run.bat contains script options that will read in the file C:\\VERDI_1.5\data\CCTM46_P16.baseO2a.36k.O3MAX, select O3[1] as the formula, and create a fast tile plot. The changes that you need to make to the run.bat are highlighted in red.


cd .\plugins\bootstrap

SET JAVA=..\..\jre1.6.0\bin\java

%JAVA% -Xmx512M -classpath "./bootstrap.jar;./lib/saf.core.runtime.jar;./lib/commons-logging.jar;./lib/jpf-boot.jar;./lib/jpf.jar;./lib\log4j-1.2.13.jar" saf.core.runtime.Boot -f C:\\VERDI_1.5\data\CCTM46_P16.baseO2a.36k.O3MAX -s O3[1] -gtype fasttile

Run the run.bat script by clicking on Start, then entering cmd. Navigate to the location of your VERDI distribution, type run, and press the Enter key (Figure 18‑2).

Figure 18‑2. Submit run.bat from Command Window


Script commands that can be used for command line scripting (listed in alphabetical order) are described below.  Adding support for these script commands in the Script Editor is planned for a future VERDI release.

[-alias <aliasname=definition>] defines an alias. You can define an alias by creating a definition using variable names and derived variables that are calculated using the mathematical operators described in Section 15: Mathematical Functions. The alias definition does not include the dataset name. The alias is treated like any other formula once the alias definition and the dataset to which it should be applied are specified. If you need to redefine an alias definition, you must first use the -unalias command. The alias definitions are saved to a verdi.alias file in the verdi subdirectory under your home directory. VERDI uses this type of optional file in your home directory to maintain a snapshot of the current aliases being used. The following warning will be reported if an alias is defined more than once: “WARNING: Alias <aliasname> already defined, new definition ignored.” You are also responsible for not making circular references. Use the ‑printAlias command to view what aliases are already defined. Note, you define an alias, VERDI will use that alias if you make a request to plot that variable again.  If you are having issues with variable names being redefined, remember to check your verdi.alias file and remove it if needed.

[-animatedGIF<filename>] creates an animated GIF by doing an X Window Dump (XWD) of each of the time steps in the tile plot, then converting them to GIF images. If there are many time steps in the dataset, there will be a slight delay before you are again given control of the GUI.

[-avi<filename>] saves an animated plot of each of the time steps in the tile plot to the AVI video format.

[-closeWindow “<windowid>”] closes the window with the specified window ID.

[-configFile <configFileName>] specifies a configuration file for VERDI to use for configuring subsequent tile plots.

[-copyright] prints out copyright information for VERDI.

[-drawDomainTicks ON|OFF] turns the domain axis ticks on and off.

[-drawGridLines ON|OFF] turns the plot grid lines on and off.

[-drawLegendTicks ON|OFF] turns the ticks in the legend on and off.

[-drawRangeTicks ON|OFF] turns the range axis ticks on and off.

[-f [[host:]<filename>] tells VERDI to load in this dataset and make it the currently selected dataset. All datasets will stay in memory.

[-fulldomain] sets the VERDI domain matching the currently selected dataset to be completely selected. The currently selected dataset is usually the most recently added dataset.

[-g <tile|fasttile|line|bar|contour>] instructs VERDI to create a plot using the specified type and the currently selected formula’s data.

[-gtype <tile|fasttile|line|bar|contour>] instructs VERDI to create a plot using the specified type and the currently selected formula’s data (note: tile and fasttile will both generate a fasttile plot starting with VERDI version 1.4).

[-help|fullhelp|usage] display the information on all the command line arguments available. Each of these three versions performs the identical function.

[-legendBins "<bin0,bin1,...,bin_n>"] causes VERDI to use the specified numbers as breaks between colors on subsequent plots. The value of this argument is a comma-separated list of numbers. For example, -legendBins “1,10,100,1000” will cause plots to be created with three colors that correspond to values of 1-10, 10-100, and 100-1000. To go back to the default method for determining breaks between bins, enter -legendBins DEFAULT.

[-level <level>] sets the level range of all formulas to the single level specified.

[-levelRange <levelMax> <levelMin>] sets the level range of all formulas to the range specified.

[-openProject <VERDIProjectName>] opens a previously save VERDI project.

[-mapName <pathname>/<mapFileName> causes VERDI to use the supplied map name instead of the default map for tile plots.

[-printAlias] prints existing alias definitions.

[-project “<VERDIProjectName>”] save dataset lists and associated formulas as a “project” for later re-use.

[-QuickTime (NEW)] creates a QuickTime movie of the currently selected plot.

[-quit|exit] ends the VERDI session.

[-raiseWindow <windowid>] raises the window with the specified plot ID (i.e., brings it to the front).

[-s "<formula>"] loads the specified formula into VERDI’s memory, and makes it the currently selected formula.

[-save2ascii "<filename>"] export data to a tab-delimited data file suitable for reading into a spreadsheet application such as Excel.

[-saveImage "<image type>" <file name>] saves the most recently created plot. This command works for all plot types. Supported formats include PNG, BMP, TIF, and JPG.

[-scatter "<formula1>" "<formula2>"] creates a scatter plot using the two formulas specified. Note that the formulas for the two components should already have been loaded into VERDI, and they are case sensitive.

[-showWindow <windowId> <timestep>] sets the time step of the window with the specified window ID to the specified time step. The time step must be within the allowable range for the dataset.

[-subDomain <xmin> <ymin> <xmax> <ymax>] sets the VERDI domain matching the currently selected dataset to the bounding box specified by its arguments. The currently selected dataset is the most recently added dataset. It is often handy to type -subdomain commands into VERDI’s standard input if you are trying to select a very precise subdomain (such as that needed for a vertical cross-section plot).

[-subTitle1 "<sub title 1 string>"] allow you to control a plot’s subtitles if desired. Subsequent plots will use the default subtitles, unless these arguments are used again.

[-subTitle2"<sub title 2 string>"] allow you to control a plot’s subtitles if desired. Subsequent plots will use the default subtitles, unless these arguments are used again.

[-subTitleFont <fontSize>] allow you to control the font size of the subtitle of a plot.

[-system "<system command>"] sends the specified command to the operating system’s command line.

[-tfinal <final time step>] sets the last time step for each formula’s time-step range to the specified step number, where the first step number is denoted by 0.

[-tinit <initial time step>] sets the first time step for each formula’s time-step range to the specified step number, where the first step number is denoted by 0.

[-titleFont <fontSize>] allows you to control the font size of the title of a plot.

[-titleString "<title string>"] sets the title for the next plot made to the specified title. Subsequent plots will use the default VERDI title, unless this argument is used again.

[-ts <time step>] sets the selected time step for each formula in VERDI’s memory to the specified step number, where the first step number is denoted by 0. This will remain the selected time step until you change it. It affects only tile plots and vertical cross-section plots.

[-unalias <aliasname>] is used to undefine an alias.

[-unitString "<unit string>"] can be used to override the default unit label used for plots. The default value comes from the dataset(s) themselves.

[-vector "<U>" "<V>"] creates a vector plot with U as the left-to-right vector component and V as the down-to-up vector component. There are no background colors used for this type of plot. Note that the formulas for the two components should already have been loaded into VERDI, and they are case sensitive.

[-vectorTile "<formula>" "<U>" "<V>"] creates a vector plot with the result of "formula" as the background tiles, U as the left-to-right vector component, and V as the down-to-up vector component. Note that the formulas for the three components should already have been loaded into VERDI, and they are case sensitive.

[-version] prints out information about the VERDI version being used on the standard output stream.

[-verticalCrossPlot X|Y <row/column> (NEW)] creates a vertical cross-section plot. You indicate whether this will be an x or y cross-section plot and what row or column to use as the base.

[-windowid] prints the window ID of the currently selected plot.

19   Areal Interpolation Calculations

Before calculating the average value for a polygon segment, the area for each polygon is calculated using the projection of the grid system loaded.  The system then calculates the area of overlay between each grid cell and the polygon segment.

The total contribution of a value (concentration, deposition, rainfall, etc.) from each cell for a given polygon segment is calculated using the following equation:

       TV i = sum (Orci * Vrc)      where

                   Orci  = Area of overlay of cell at row r and column c with segment i,

            Vrc = value of cell at row r and column c, and

            r and c iterate across the rows and columns of the grid.

The Average Value is calculated by dividing the total value by the area of the polygon segment:

       AverageVi = TVi  / Ai                        where

                                                Ai  = Area of the polygon segment i

20  Licenses for JAVA Libraries used by VERDI

VERDI has been developed using a number of open source Java libraries.  Table 21-1 contains a list of the jar files or Java libraries that are used by VERDI, a link to where each library may be acquired, a link to the location where the license is referenced by the documentation for each library, as well as a link to each license.  The distribution for VERDI contains a sub-directory called licenses.  This directory contains a copy of the licenses for the open source Java libraries used by VERDI.

Table 20‑1. JAVA Libraries used by VERDI

List of Java Libraries
Where to acquire software
Reference to Software License for Software
Link to license or the specific license number
JTS (java topology suite)
geoapi LGPL V2.1, Feb. 1999
jfreechart LGPL V2.1, Feb. 1999
Piccolo 1.2
Repast symphony GIS



Contributions to VERDI from the community are greatly appreciated.

Data Contributions

Sample CAMx Dataset

Marco Rodriguez, CIRA at Colorado State University

Sample Mercator Projection Dataset

Tanya Otte, Atmospheric Modeling and Analysis Division,

Data Reader Contributions

I/O Service Provider (IOSP) Interface for CAMx:

Barron Henderson, ORISE Fellow, EPA, Ph.D. student UNC Chapel Hill

Incorporating the IOSP into netcdf-java Library:

John Carron, Unidata,


[#_ftnref1 [1]] Schwede, D., N. Collier, J. Dolph, M.A. Bitz Widing, T. Howe, 2007: A New Tool for Analyzing CMAQ Modeling Results: Visualization Environment for Rich Data Interpretation (VERDI). Proceedings, CMAS 2007 Conference.